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Siri Veland

, such as Polar Geopolitics? ( Powell and Dodds 2014 ) and Diplomacy on Ice ( Pincus 2015 ), as well as Young (1998) , in Creating Regimes , discuss “ice” vaguely as thinning, disappearing, and melting ( Veland and Lynch 2017 ). Meanwhile, the Norwegian government has opened new drilling leases in the Barents Sea, the cruise ship Crystal Serenity has been able to visit Alaska’s North Slope, and the northern sea route is reducing shipping distance by thousands of kilometers for an increasing

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Alistair D. Clulow, Sheldon Strydom, Bryan Grant, Michael J. Savage, and Colin S. Everson

charged particles above negatively charged particles, or tripole, in which a dipole structure exists with the addition of lower-charged areas below ( Stolzenburg et al. 1998 ). Charge transfers within a thunderstorm generally occur during the collisions between soft graupel (ice-encrusted snow pellets) and ice crystals at different temperatures ( Dwyer and Uman 2014 ). A detailed review of thunderstorm electrification is provided by Stolzenburg et al. (1998) and Dwyer and Uman (2014) . Advances in

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Julie E. Doll, Brian Petersen, and Claire Bode

, but not because they are focused on climate change; in other words, they do not attribute their adaptations to human-induced climate change. The reduced planting window represents a climate change consequence that farmers have addressed, but, as one farmer put it, “But going back to this planting window, we don’t really know what caused it. You or somebody, Al Gore, might say that man caused it all, and we might say ‘Well, it’s happened since the ice age. Times change.’ It doesn’t really matter

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Rachel Hauser

human life and injurious societal impacts. Vincent Schaefer’s 1946 discovery that ice crystals can form in high humidity environments (e.g., clouds) and act as condensation nuclei opened up the potential for weather modification. Working at General Electric (GE) in Nobel Prize winner Irving Langmuir’s laboratory along with Schaefer, Bernard Vonnegut obtained a similar result to Schaefer’s by seeding clouds with silver iodide in 1947 ( NRC 2003 ; Cotton and Pielke 2007 ; Fleming 2010 ). Research

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