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Lei Shi, Ge Peng, and John J. Bates

1. Introduction The High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) has been on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellite series for more than 30 yr. There are 20 channels in the HIRS instrument, providing measurement in a spatial resolution of approximately 20 km at nadir. Among these channels, channels 7, 8, 10, and 11 are designed to measure the surface and lower-atmosphere temperature and humidity. Central wavenumbers for these channels are

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Xiaolei Niu and Rachel T. Pinker

these latitudes. In this paper, we evaluate various satellite estimates of daily SWR for 2 yr (2003–04) when all the satellite data are available; the MODIS products are evaluated for the period of July 2002–June 2010. 2. Datasets a. Surface observations The ARM-NSA Barrow facility has been in operation since July 1997. The focus of the measurements is on solar and thermal infrared radiation at the earth’s surface and relevant atmospheric parameters. Before the start of the ARM observations, many

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

sum of incoming solar radiation (SW), net longwave radiation (LW), sensible heat flux (SE), latent heat flux (LA), and conductive heat flux in ice (FC i ), as follows: where α is surface albedo and the subscripts w and i represent the water surface and ice surface, respectively. The heat fluxes in Eqs. (2a) and (2b) are calculated from the bulk and empirical formulas that are suitable for the Sea of Okhotsk, following Ohshima et al. (2003 , 2006) . In Eq. (2b) , FC i is calculated

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

examined TOA radiative fluxes from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) for the study period February 1985 to April 1989 ( Barkstrom 1984 ). Porter et al. (2010) similarly examined the North Polar cap energy budget for the period November 2000–October 2005 using the 25-year Japanese Reanalysis (JRA-25; Onogi et al. 2007 ) and satellite data from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES; Wielicki et al. 1996 ) product. In support of budget comparisons with these previous

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

). Here, to improve the resolution of the SST forcing in the DPRD10 reanalysis, we employed daily 0.25° × 0.25° resolution optimum interpolation SST analysis version 2 ( Reynolds et al. 2007 ). This SST product uses both the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer infrared satellite, which has good coverage in cloud-free regions near land, and the AMSR-E satellite, which can see through the year-round clouds in the Southern Ocean. This high-resolution SST product was shown to agree with observations

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