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Hyo-Seok Park, Sukyoung Lee, Seok-Woo Son, Steven B. Feldstein, and Yu Kosaka

). Since downward infrared radiation (IR) is an important warming agent in the Arctic ( Walsh and Chapman 1998 ; Uttal et al. 2002 ; Winton 2006 ), it is natural to ask whether fluctuations in downward IR can induce changes in the sea ice. Wintertime sea ice fluctuations have generally been attributed to wind-induced ice motion ( Fang and Wallace 1994 ; Rigor et al. 2002 ; Rigor and Wallace 2004 ; Kwok et al. 2005 ; Sorteberg and Kvingedal 2006 ; Liptak and Strong 2014 ) and temperature

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Michael Goss, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

studies that link tropical sea surface temperature anomalies to changes in Arctic SAT ( Lee 2012 ; Ding et al. 2014 ). These studies have shown that the tropical heating excites poleward Rossby wave propagation that drives changes in Arctic SAT through its influence on high-latitude downward infrared radiation (IR), horizontal temperature advection, and adiabatic warming/cooling. Intuitively, it would not be surprising if anomalous tropical convection were to excite transient eddies, which

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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

circulation anomalies can be established at high latitudes in 3–6 days as the Pacific–North America (PNA) pattern. These MJO-induced circulation changes alter poleward heat transport. Together with adiabatic warming and downward infrared radiative fluxes, the anomalous poleward heat transport is capable of influencing the variability of winter surface temperature in the Arctic. This result is consistent with the results of Graversen (2006) . Yoo et al. (2011) further found in observations that MJO

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