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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

used for the short- and longwave radiation processes ( Fu et al. 1997 ). The initial fields for the model are created from a three-dimensional variational data assimilation (i.e., 3DVAR) method ( Daley and Barker 2001 ). Lateral boundary conditions for the outermost grid mesh are derived from Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) forecast fields ( Hogan et al. 2014 ). The computational domain contains two horizontally nested grid meshes of 256 × 150 and 433 × 358 grid points, and the

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Jun Ma, Karl W. Hoppel, David D. Kuhl, Douglas R. Allen, James A. Doyle, Kevin C. Viner, Benjamin C. Ruston, Nancy L. Baker, Steven D. Swadley, Timothy R. Whitcomb, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Liang Xu, N. Kaifler, B. Kaifler, Iain M. Reid, Damian J. Murphy, and Peter T. Love

Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM; Han et al. 2010 ), such as the upwelling radiation propagation vector and geomagnetic field vectors ( Maurer et al. 2015 ). Within NAVGEM, systematic radiance biases are identified and removed using variational bias correction (varBC; Dee and Uppala 2009 ), with the LAS and UAS channels treated separately, replacing earlier SSMIS bias-correction procedures described in section 4a of Hoppel et al. (2013) . Bias-corrected UAS radiances are assimilated here

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

.1002/2014JD021460 . Chen , F. , and J. Dudhia , 2001 : Coupling an advanced land surface–hydrology model with the Penn State–NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Model implementation and sensitivity . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 129 , 569 – 585 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<0569:CAALSH>2.0.CO;2 . Chou , M. , and M. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo.104606, 85 pp . Davis , C. , and Coauthors , 2008

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Ronald B. Smith and Christopher G. Kruse

many clever methods have been devised to observe gravity waves [e.g., balloon soundings, vertically pointing lidar and frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar, and limb and nadir infrared detection from satellites], they usually observe only one or two physical variables. For example, recent advances in superpressure balloon technology ( Vincent and Hertzog 2014 ) provide good horizontal structure of pressure and wind, but vertical air motion must be inferred and temperature is not

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