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Adrian J. Matthews, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Karen J. Heywood, Piotr J. Flatau, and Sunke Schmidtko

diurnal warm layer. As the solar radiation flux decreases through the afternoon, it is eventually overwhelmed by the cooling fluxes of latent heat, infrared radiation, and sensible heat, and the temperature of the diurnal warm layer decreases. After sunset (1800 LST) there is rapid cooling and mixing and a return to isothermal conditions at 0000 LST the next day. The colored vertical lines in Fig. 3a show the times of the seven glider profiles during that day ( Fig. 3b ), which the optimally

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

of flow distortion on the rain gauges. The optical rain had good exposure on the forward mast and lower sensitivity to wind. Therefore, the adjusted rain rate from the optical rain gauge is used as the in situ time series of precipitation from the Revelle . The adjusted rain rate from the optical rain gauge agrees well with nearby buoy measurements. e. Radiative fluxes The downwelling thermal infrared (IR) radiation is computed using an average of the motion-stabilized ESRL/PSD pyrgeometers

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, James H. Ruppert Jr., and Masaki Katsumata

number of the outstanding issues related to the MJO, with particular attention to tropospheric moistening processes, evolving cloud populations, and air–sea interaction during its initiation. The experiment consisted of four collaborating campaign components ( Yoneyama et al. 2013 ): Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO), Cooperative Indian Ocean Experiment on Intraseasonal Variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY), Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE), and Littoral

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Shuguang Wang, Adam H. Sobel, Fuqing Zhang, Y. Qiang Sun, Ying Yue, and Lei Zhou

5 modeling system. Part I: Model implementation and sensitivity . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 129 , 569 – 585 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<0569:CAALSH>2.0.CO;2 . Chou , M. D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, 98 pp . Ciesielski , P. E. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Quality-controlled upper-air sounding dataset for DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE: Development and corrections . J. Atmos. Oceanic

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Eric D. Skyllingstad and Simon P. de Szoeke

with higher surface winds and suppressed MJO phase moisture convergence to examine how increased surface fluxes from stronger winds affect convective activity versus externally forced moisture convergence. Simulations are conducted using a version of the Skyllingstad and Edson (2009) LES model that includes parameterizations for the radiative transfer of infrared and solar radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) along with a seven-component cloud microphysics scheme ( Thompson et al. 2008 ). Model

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James N. Moum, Simon P. de Szoeke, William D. Smyth, James B. Edson, H. Langley DeWitt, Aurélie J. Moulin, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Christopher J. Zappa, Steven A. Rutledge, Richard H. Johnson, and Christopher W. Fairall

profiles from hull-mounted Doppler sonar; water column optical profiles to determine the penetrating solar radiation, a key contributor to air–sea heat exchanges; sea surface (skin) temperature from infrared radiometers; near-surface ocean temperature and salinity profiles from ~0.05- to 7-m depth from a towed surface thermistor (SeaSnake) and fixed subsurface array (CT chain); and continuous profiling (150–200 casts per day) of upper-ocean temperature; salinity; microscale shear; and subsurface

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Naoko Sakaeda, Scott W. Powell, Juliana Dias, and George N. Kiladis

depending on the cloud and rain types examined, such as high versus low clouds or heavy versus light rain rates ( Albright et al. 1985 ; Janowiak et al. 1994 ; Chen and Houze 1997 ; Cairns 1995 ; Sakaeda et al. 2017 ). In past studies, clouds were generally categorized by infrared brightness temperature ( Albright et al. 1985 ; Janowiak et al. 1994 ; Chen and Houze 1997 ) or cloud-top pressure estimated from brightness temperatures ( Cairns 1995 ; Sakaeda et al. 2017 ). This method enables

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Wen-wen Tung, Dimitrios Giannakis, and Andrew J. Majda

Earth’s infrared emission in terms of the temperature of a hypothesized blackbody emitting the same amount of radiation at the same wavelength (~10–11 µ m in CLAUS). It is a highly correlated variable with the total terrestrial longwave emission. In the tropics, positive (negative) T B anomalies are associated with reduced (increased) cloudiness, hence suppressed (enhanced) deep convection. The global CLAUS T B (Λ, Φ, t ) data are on a 0.5° longitude (Λ) × 0.5° latitude (Φ) fixed grid, with 3-h

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Kunio Yoneyama, Chidong Zhang, and Charles N. Long

eastward the farthest, passing the Manus site and reaching the date line. Fig. 7. Time–longitude diagram of infrared radiation brightness temperature (white shading) and precipitation (color shading) along the equator averaged over 10°S–10°N. Red contours indicate convective MJO signals based on the Wheeler and Weickmann (2001) method applied to OLR, with only negative contours plotted (interval of 10 W m −2 ). Vertical lines indicate the time of observations by ships (yellow for Revelle , orange

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Weixin Xu and Steven A. Rutledge

quantify air–sea interactions. Indeed, these outstanding problems motivated the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO; Yoneyama et al. 2013 ) field experiment over the central Indian Ocean (CIO) around 8°S–8°N, 72°–80°E during late 2011–early 2012. Early studies of the MJO cloud population and convective characteristics were mainly based on satellite infrared or outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) measurements ( Lau and Chan 1985 , 1986 ; Nakazawa 1988 ; Mapes and Houze 1993 ; Chen et al. 1996 ). These

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