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Sara Q. Zhang, T. Matsui, S. Cheung, M. Zupanski, and C. Peters-Lidard

feedback between physical processes and large-scale dynamics in the WAM. Assimilation of precipitation-sensitive radiances impacts the horizontal and vertical distribution of clouds as well as the temporal evolution. For instance more frequent convective storms may be associated with a larger population of high-top clouds, which in turn may correspond to a lower outgoing longwave radiation. We use a high-resolution infrared radiance dataset from merged geostationary satellites to examine whether the

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Jackson Tan, Walter A. Petersen, and Ali Tokay

-top temperatures. Much progress has been made in the last two decades with a contingent of low-Earth-orbiting passive microwave satellites and two NASA/JAXA spaceborne radars in the microwave band, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. Unlike infrared radiation, microwave radiation is able to penetrate clouds and interact more directly with precipitation; consequently, microwave retrieval techniques generally provide a superior estimate of

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Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, Daniel J. Cecil, and Qinghong Zhang

of cloud-top TB between the south of France and the middle Ebro valley in Spain. For this reason, techniques that identify hailfall on the basis of infrared TB probably need to be adapted to each specific study region. Spaceborne passive microwave sensors detect upwelling radiation from the surface, which is scattered by graupel and hail particles in convective clouds, resulting in TB depressions. The measured radiation reaching the sensor depends on column-integrated scattering and emission

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Jiaying Zhang, Liao-Fan Lin, and Rafael L. Bras

information of temperature. Section 4 discusses the robustness of the results. Section 5 provides conclusions. 2. Data and methods a. IMERG early- and final-run products This study uses version 5 IMERG early- and final-run products. The IMERG level 3 multisatellite precipitation product combines precipitation estimates from all passive microwave sensors from the GPM constellation, infrared observations from geosynchronous satellites, and monthly gauge measurements ( Huffman et al. 2015 ). IMERG covers

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W.-K. Tao, T. Iguchi, and S. Lang

. Meteor. Climatol. , 49 , 535 – 543 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JAMC2330.1 . 10.1175/2009JAMC2330.1 Chou , M.-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1999 : A solar radiation parameterization for atmospheric studies. NASA Tech. Memo. NASA/TM-1999-10460, Vol. 15, 38 pp., http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/pubs/docs/Chou136.pdf . Chou , M.-D. , M. J. Suarez , X.-Z. Liang , and M. M.-H. Yan , 2001 : A thermal infrared radiation parameterization for atmospheric studies. NASA Tech. Rep. NASA/TM-2001

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Kenneth D. Leppert II and Daniel J. Cecil

radiometer on board the Core Observatory [i.e., GPM Microwave Imager (GMI)] senses radiation at various frequencies from 10.65 to 183.31 ± 7 GHz ( Hou et al. 2014 ). Note that for succinctness hereafter, all frequencies will be referred to by their integer value (e.g., 10.65 GHz will be referred to as 10 GHz). There are two basic physical processes involved in passive microwave precipitation retrieval. The first process is based on the emission of radiation by liquid hydrometeors (e.g., Wilheit et al

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Clément Guilloteau, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Christian D. Kummerow, and Veljko Petković

measured radiances are the product of the interaction of surface-emitted radiation with water vapor, liquid, and solid hydrometeors in the atmosphere. The radiances are converted into brightness temperatures (TBs) for physical interpretation. The 183-GHz channels are primarily sensitive to water vapor absorption and ice scattering. While channels between 80 and 170 GHz are also most sensitive to ice scattering, channels between 10 and 40 GHz are most sensitive to emission by liquid raindrops (and by

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Sarah D. Bang and Daniel J. Cecil

) data. Punge et al. (2017) developed a hail retrieval using infrared (IR) data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites, applying an overshooting cloud-top detection algorithm developed by Bedka (2011) and Griffin et al. (2016) and used this retrieval to estimate a climatology of hail over Europe. All of the aforementioned approaches use ground reports of hail to train their hail retrievals. Leppert and Cecil (2015) and Mroz et al. (2017) use instead ground radar dual

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Hooman Ayat, Jason P. Evans, Steven Sherwood, and Ali Behrangi

into half-hourly 0.1° × 0.1° fields (variable name: HQprecipitaiton). Maps of half-hourly infrared (IR) precipitation rate (IRprecipitation) are calculated using an IR-based precipitation retrieval method (PERSIANN-CCS; Hong et al. 2004 ). MW and IR estimates are used to create half-hourly estimates (precipitationUncal) by utilizing the Climate Prediction Center morphing–Kalman filter (CMORPH-KF) Lagrangian time interpolation scheme. The multisatellite half-hour estimates are adjusted so that they

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Liao-Fan Lin, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, Alejandro N. Flores, Satish Bastola, and Rafael L. Bras

. 2012 , 2014 ; S. V. Kumar et al. 2014 ; Zhao et al. 2016 ). The family of soil moisture data assimilation methods uses prescribed atmospheric forcing (e.g., precipitation and downward radiation) and updates only selected land surface states, which often include soil moisture and temperature profiles. More recently, Rasmy et al. (2011 , 2012) developed a WRF-based system that is capable of updating the state of soil moisture, cloud liquid water, water vapor, rain, and snow through the

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