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Dai Matsushima, Reiji Kimura, and Masato Shinoda

(1992) . This model comprehensively considered the surface heat budget (e.g., van de Griend et al. 1985 ), not just the radiation and ground heat flux as in other models. Hence, the thermal inertia was estimated simultaneously with other parameters such as the bulk transfer coefficients of heat and the evaporation efficiency. The results of Matsushima (2006 , 2007) did not show sufficient quantitative resolution to estimate soil water content based on values of the thermal inertia. This may be

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

large-scale circulation was published by Chaboureau and Claud (2006) based on satellite data. More recently, Levizzani et al. (2010) have carried out a 10-yr study on the span, duration, and phase speed of propagating cloud systems in the warm season over the Mediterranean using half-hourly Meteorological Satellite (Meteosat) infrared data. a. Intense Mediterranean cyclones Mediterranean storms are often characterized by heavy precipitation, intense wind shear, and deep atmospheric lows, and

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

Initiative I ( Meeson et al. 1995 ; Sellers et al. 1996 ), which is a collection of global 1° latitude and longitude gridded datasets of soils, land cover, hydrometeorology, and radiation covering the two-year period 1987/88. ISLSCP Initiative I data were distributed as a set of five CD-ROMs that was extremely successful, with over 13 000 copies of the data disseminated to scientists, educators, and others. However, after the conception of the data initiative, it was decided by the ISLSCP Science Panel

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Minseok Kang, Hyojung Kwon, Jung Hwa Cheon, and Joon Kim

technique was used to measure ET from a 40-m tower at both sites. Vertical and horizontal wind speeds and temperature were measured with a three-dimensional sonic anemometer (model: CSAT3, Campbell Scientific Inc., Logan, Utah) at 10 Hz for both sites. An open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA; model: LI-7500, LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska) was used for both sites to measure water vapor concentration. Half-hourly eddy covariances and the associated statistics were calculated online from 10-Hz raw data

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Qing Liu, Rolf H. Reichle, Rajat Bindlish, Michael H. Cosh, Wade T. Crow, Richard de Jeu, Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy, George J. Huffman, and Thomas J. Jackson

Fig. 1 : (i) standard MERRA precipitation, (ii) MERRA corrected to CMAP, (iii) MERRA corrected to GPCP, and (iv) MERRA corrected to CPC. The remainder of the surface meteorological forcing inputs (including air temperature and humidity, radiation, wind speed, and surface pressure) were taken from MERRA data without applying further observations-based corrections. Table 1. Overview of precipitation products. The CMAP, GPCP, and CPC products were used to correct MERRA precipitation ( section 2d

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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

study, we tried to control air CO 2 concentration in GM to approximately 370 ppm. Meteorological variables in the GM were continuously measured and automatically logged. As required, air was circulated by fans inside the GM to maintain steady air temperature and CO 2 concentration, which were measured every minute using a platinum resistance sensor (HM119; Oyo Electronics, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) and an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) (ZKJ-SZ; Fuji Electric Systems Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), respectively

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