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Shruti A. Upadhyaya, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Jonathan J. Gourley, and Robert J. Kuligowski

GOES-17 satellites, other new generation GEO sensors include Spinning Enhanced Visible Infrared Imager (SEVIRI; Meteosat-8 , Meteosat-9 , Meteosat-10 , Meteosat-11 ), Multichannel Scanning Unit-Geostationary (MSU-GS; Electro-L N1–2 ), Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI; Himawari-8 and Himawari-9 ), Advanced Geosynchronous Radiation Imager (AGRI; FY-4A ), Advanced Meteorological Imager (AMI; GEO-KOMPSAT-2A ), all with more than 10 spectral channels. These next generation GEO satellites provide

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Phu Nguyen, Mohammed Ombadi, Vesta Afzali Gorooh, Eric J. Shearer, Mojtaba Sadeghi, Soroosh Sorooshian, Kuolin Hsu, David Bolvin, and Martin F. Ralph

accessibility over remote regions have limited the establishment of a global radar network ( Habib et al. 2012 ; Westrick et al. 1999 ; Scofield and Kuligowski 2003 ). Satellite-based precipitation estimation promises to provide a remedy for the shortcomings of observing precipitation using radars and in situ rainfall gauges ( Sun et al. 2018 ; Xie et al. 2007 ). Early studies that attempted to estimate rain rate from satellite multichannel visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) imagery dates back to the late

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Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Clement Guilloteau, Phu Nguyen, Amir Aghakouchak, Kuo-Lin Hsu, Antonio Busalacchi, F. Joseph Turk, Christa Peters-Lidard, Taikan Oki, Qingyun Duan, Witold Krajewski, Remko Uijlenhoet, Ana Barros, Pierre Kirstetter, William Logan, Terri Hogue, Hoshin Gupta, and Vincenzo Levizzani

upper winds and outgoing solar radiation) is a key variable for detecting changes in the location of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Projected shifts in the ITCZ location (e.g., Byrne et al. 2018 ) will have significant implications for water cycle dynamics and regional precipitation and requires further study. Also, recent evidence suggests a weakening of the ENSO signal and the emergence of the western Pacific as an important contributor to the hydrometeorology of the southwestern

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

especially pronounced in satellite observations. Since the first spaceborne passive microwave instruments were launched in early 1970s, satellite precipitation retrievals have exploited the link between upwelling radiation and state of atmospheric column. Leveraging decades of ever-improving algorithms, coverage, and data latency, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission ( Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2018 ; Hou et al. 2014 ) represents the most advance satellite precipitation project to date

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Clément Guilloteau and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

the GPM Core Observatory satellite. GMI continuously measures the radiations coming from the surface and the atmosphere below the GPM Core Observatory satellite. For the 9 lower-frequency channels (between 10 and 90 GHz) the mechanical rotation of GMI allows to perform a conical scan at a constant 53° Earth incidence angle over an around 850-km wide swath every 1.9 s. Each scan is made of 221 samples, 5 km apart. The distance between two consecutive scans (along-track) is 13.5 km. Each sample

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Zhe Li, Daniel B. Wright, Sara Q. Zhang, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, and Samantha H. Hartke

such as the GPM “constellation” ( Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2017 ). These multisensor observations must therefore be converted into precipitation rates and interpolated onto a consistent spatial and temporal grid. The “workhorse” satellite instruments for precipitation estimates are passive microwave (PMW) radiometers, which observe along a satellite’s “swath,” the relatively narrow band over Earth sampled by the onboard sensor as a satellite moves along its orbit. Infrared (IR) observations from

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