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H. J. S. Fernando, E. R. Pardyjak, S. Di Sabatino, F. K. Chow, S. F. J. De Wekker, S. W. Hoch, J. Hacker, J. C. Pace, T. Pratt, Z. Pu, W. J. Steenburgh, C. D. Whiteman, Y. Wang, D. Zajic, B. Balsley, R. Dimitrova, G. D. Emmitt, C. W. Higgins, J. C. R. Hunt, J. C. Knievel, D. Lawrence, Y. Liu, D. F. Nadeau, E. Kit, B. W. Blomquist, P. Conry, R. S. Coppersmith, E. Creegan, M. Felton, A. Grachev, N. Gunawardena, C. Hang, C. M. Hocut, G. Huynh, M. E. Jeglum, D. Jensen, V. Kulandaivelu, M. Lehner, L. S. Leo, D. Liberzon, J. D. Massey, K. McEnerney, S. Pal, T. Price, M. Sghiatti, Z. Silver, M. Thompson, H. Zhang, and T. Zsedrovits

enhanced vertical resolution near the ground); 3) full radiation budget (incoming and outgoing long- and shortwave fluxes at 2–3 m); 4) infrared (IR) surface temperature; and 5) soil heat flux, soil moisture, soil thermal properties, as well as multiple levels of subsurface temperature. Sonic anemometers were also placed at 0.5 m AGL to investigate skin flows, a known phenomenon ( Clements et al. 2003 ) yet unresolved by both numerical models and observations. F ig . 4. Salient instruments at DPG: (a

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Derek D. Jensen

parameterize and can exhibit significant spatial variability and—for characteristics like soil moisture, albedo, and emissivity—temporal variability (e.g., Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; Ek et al. 2003 ; Malek 2003 ). Land surface characteristics affect near-surface forecasts of temperature, moisture, and momentum by changing the relative importance of components of the surface energy balance (SEB), with the net radiation R n partitioned into surface sensible heat flux H , latent heat flux LE, and ground

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