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Allison B. Marquardt Collow and Mark A. Miller

thermal infrared radiation parameterization for atmospheric studies. NASA Tech. Rep. NASA/TM-2001-104606, 68 pp. [Available online at http://www2.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/phys_refs/SW_LW/Goddard_part2.pdf .] Clothiaux , E. E. , and Coauthors , 2001 : The ARM millimeter wave cloud radars (MMCRs) and the active remote sensing of clouds (ARSCL) value added product (VAP). DOE Tech. Memo. ARM VAP-002.1, 56 pp. [Available online at https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/arm-vap-002-1.pdf

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Clara S. Draper, Rolf H. Reichle, and Randal D. Koster

partitioning of incident surface radiation between latent heat (LH) and sensible heat (SH) fluxes back to the atmosphere. Reichle et al. (2017a) show that both MERRA-2 and MERRA-Land have improved upon the land surface hydrology of MERRA, showing better agreement with independent observational time series of soil moisture, terrestrial water storage, streamflow, and snow amount. Here, we extend this work, by evaluating the MERRA-2 surface energy budget and 2-m temperatures over land. In particular, we

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Rolf H. Reichle, Q. Liu, Randal D. Koster, Clara S. Draper, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Gary S. Partyka

/ ). MERRA-2 replaces the original MERRA reanalysis ( Rienecker et al. 2011 ) and includes updates to the AGCM ( Molod et al. 2012 , 2015 ) and to the Global Statistical Interpolation atmospheric analysis scheme of Wu et al. (2002) . In addition to the atmospheric in situ and remotely sensed observations used in MERRA, the MERRA-2 system also ingests observations from newer microwave sounders and hyperspectral infrared radiance instruments, and other new data types. Moreover, MERRA-2 preserves the

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Laura M. Hinkelman

.8: Data quality summary (March 19, 2014). CERES Tech. Rep., 52 pp., https://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/documents/DQ_summaries/CERES_EBAF_Ed2.8_DQS.pdf . Chou , M.-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1999 : A solar radiation parameterization for atmospheric studies. NASA Tech. Memo. NASA/TM-1999-104606, Vol. 15, 51 pp., https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19990060930.pdf . Chou , M.-D. , M. J. Suarez , X.-Z. Liang , and M. M.-H. Yan , 2001 : A thermal infrared radiation

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Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, Lawrence Takacs, Andrea Molod, and David Mocko

-Range Weather Forecasts ENSO El Niño–Southern Oscillation EOF Empirical orthogonal function ERA ECWMF reanalysis (40 yr, Interim, 20C, or 20CM) GEOS-5 Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 GPCP Global Precipitation Climatology Project GPSRO Global positioning system radio occultation GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GSI Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation HIRS High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder IASI Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer IAU Incremental analysis update ITCZ

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Richard I. Cullather and Sophie M. J. Nowicki

activity . J. Climate , 10 , 839 – 870 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<0839:POGRBA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<0839:POGRBA>2.0.CO;2 Chou , M.-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Global Modeling and Data Assimilation Tech. Memo. NASA/TM-1994-104606/Vol. 3, 85 pp. Chou , M.-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1999 : A solar radiation parameterization for atmospheric studies. NASA

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Ronald Gelaro, Will McCarty, Max J. Suárez, Ricardo Todling, Andrea Molod, Lawrence Takacs, Cynthia A. Randles, Anton Darmenov, Michael G. Bosilovich, Rolf Reichle, Krzysztof Wargan, Lawrence Coy, Richard Cullather, Clara Draper, Santha Akella, Virginie Buchard, Austin Conaty, Arlindo M. da Silva, Wei Gu, Gi-Kong Kim, Randal Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Dagmar Merkova, Jon Eric Nielsen, Gary Partyka, Steven Pawson, William Putman, Michele Rienecker, Siegfried D. Schubert, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Bin Zhao

radio occultation GSI Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation GWD Gravity wave drag HIRS High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder IASI Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer IAU Incremental analysis update IESA Integrated Earth system analysis IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change JMA Japan Meteorological Agency JPSS Joint Polar Satellite System JRA-55 Japanese 55-year Reanalysis MACC Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project MAR Modèle Atmosphérique Régional MDCRS

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Krzysztof Wargan and Lawrence Coy

(AIRS) on the Aqua satellite, the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI, starting in September 2008), the Cross-Track Infrared Sounder [on the Suomi–National Polar-Orbiting Partnership ( Suomi–NPP ) satellite, from April 2012 onward], the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (on Suomi–NPP , starting in November 2011), and microwave data from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit and a series of High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder instruments. Of these, the AIRS and IASI

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C. A. Randles, A. M. da Silva, V. Buchard, P. R. Colarco, A. Darmenov, R. Govindaraju, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, Y. Shinozuka, and C. J. Flynn

technical documentation ( Randles et al. 2016 ) and file specifications available at http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/reanalysis/MERRA-2/docs/ . Individual MERRA-2 data collections are accessible via their own digital object identifier (doi) codes. For this study and Part II we use aerosol ( GMAO 2015a , b , c ), meteorological ( GMAO 2015d , e ), and radiation ( GMAO 2015f ) collections. 2. The MERRA-2 modeling system An overview of the MERRA-2 modeling system is found in Gelaro et al. (2017) . Briefly

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Krzysztof Wargan, Gordon Labow, Stacey Frith, Steven Pawson, Nathaniel Livesey, and Gary Partyka

parameterization affects the stratosphere, in particular resulting in a realistic quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) generated by the model in the absence of observations ( Coy et al. 2016 ). Other changes include upgrades to moist physics and the enforcement of dry mass conservation in the assimilation ( Takacs et al. 2016 ). The model updates are described in detail in Molod et al. (2015) . The observing system was expanded to include more recent satellite data: the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding

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