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Christopher J. Watts, Russell L. Scott, Jaime Garatuza-Payan, Julio C. Rodriguez, John H. Prueger, William P. Kustas, and Michael Douglas

main change is the increase in the leaf area. Presumably, the increase in light reflected by the leaves in the near-infrared region more than offsets their increased absorption in the visible bands. Finally, we should note that albedo changes may well be larger for the DS+B site, since the soil there is light colored and the growth of the Buffel grass produces a significant change in ground cover. If the net radiation is expressed as a fraction of the incoming solar radiation, we have so that much

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Paquita Zuidema, Chris Fairall, Leslie M. Hartten, Jeffrey E. Hare, and Daniel Wolfe

-sky flux. The solar cloud forcing is always negative, as clouds decrease the solar radiation at the surface relative to clear-sky conditions, while the infrared cloud forcing is always positive. A time series of the longwave and solar cloud forcing during NAME is shown in Fig. 9 , with the clear-sky values calculated from a simple model. The mean solar cloud forcing of −70 W m −2 dominates the mean infrared cloud forcing of 10 W m −2 , indicating the net cloud effect is a surface cooling. Table 2

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X. Gao, J. Li, and S. Sorooshian

. This study uses the Kain–Fritch (K–F) cumulus convective parameterization scheme ( Kain and Fritch 1990 ). Previous studies indicate that the K–F scheme works well at a spatial resolution of 25 km and performs better than other schemes over the NAM regions ( Wang and Seaman 1997 ; Stensrud et al. 1997 ; Gochis et al. 2002 ). Other physics schemes used in the study include the simple ice explicit moisture adjustment scheme ( Dudhia 1989 ), the cloud radiation scheme ( Dudhia 1989 ), and the Noah

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Myong-In Lee, Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, Isaac M. Held, Arun Kumar, Thomas L. Bell, Jae-Kyung E. Schemm, Ngar-Cheung Lau, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, Hyun-Kyung Kim, and Soo-Hyun Yoo

precipitation in observations and model forecasts during NAME with emphasis on the diurnal cycle. J. Climate , 20 , 1680 – 1692 . Joyce , R. J. , J. E. Janowiak , P. A. Arkin , and P. Xie , 2004 : CMORPH: A method that produces global precipitation estimates from passive microwave and infrared data at high spatial and temporal resolution. J. Hydrometeor. , 5 , 487 – 503 . Koster , R. D. , and Coauthors , 2004 : Regions of strong coupling between soil moisture and precipitation

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