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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

land and ocean surfaces, independent of whether clouds are present. With this modification, HERB 2008 is better suited to representing variability in the tropical radiation budget caused by aerosols. HERB 2008 also features an improved algorithm for daytime cloud detection that combines visible and infrared observations from VIRS. At solar zenith angles less than 75°, a visible reflectance greater than one standard deviation above that of the clearest pixel in the preceding month is required to

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

infrared radiation and has been used to study cloud–radiation interactions ( Tao et al. 1996 , 2003a ). Subgrid-scale (turbulent) processes in the model are parameterized using a scheme based on Klemp and Wilhelmson (1978) . The effects of both dry and moist processes on the generation of subgrid-scale kinetic energy have been incorporated ( Soong and Ogura 1980 ). The sedimentation of cloud ice ( Starr and Cox 1985 ) is included to better model clouds in the upper troposphere. All scalar variables

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K-M. Lau and H-T. Wu

moistening by shallow boundary layer and congestus are necessary to realistically produce the wide range of tropical temporal and spatial variability, including MJO ( Khouider and Majda 2007 ). Modeling studies have shown that warm-rain processes may play an important role in regulating the time scales of MJO convective cycles through dynamical feedback induced by cloud radiation and latent heating ( Lee et al. 2001 ; Lin and Mapes 2004 ; Lau et al. 2005 ). Using a community climate model, Zhang and

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Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Nagio Hirota

congestus is also reported by Petty (1999) , utilizing surface synoptic reports together with infrared images of the Japanese fifth geostationary meteorological satellite ( GMS-5 ). He concluded that a substantial fraction (20%–40%) of precipitation comes from clouds warmer than 273 K in a large area to the east of Australia. Mapes (2000) also emphasized the significant role of cumulus congestus in helping to balance between the convective heating and atmospheric radiative cooling. Short and

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Andrew J. Newman

’s Radiation Budget (HERB) algorithm ( L’Ecuyer and Stephens 2003 , 2007 ). HERB synthesizes ice cloud microphysical property information from the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS); liquid cloud properties, precipitation profiles, SST, and water vapor retrievals from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI); and vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalyses, to characterize the three

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

, cloud radiative forcing makes the largest contribution to the total diabatic heating after latent heating. Tao et al. (2003b , 2004) reported that net radiation (cooling) accounts for about 20% or more of the net condensation for the SCSMEX cloud systems simulated by the GCE model. The vertical profile of Q R can be estimated from the TMI and Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the TRMM ( L’Ecuyer and Stephens 2003 ). The vertical profile of Q R estimated from the TRMM for the SCSMEX

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

, Q 1 − Q R , and Q 1 are compared to rawinsonde-based estimates of surface rain rate and Q 1 . The satellite estimates of surface rain rate and Q 1 − Q R are derived from the TMI algorithm trained using the SCSMEX cloud model lookup tables, as described previously. Satellite estimates of Q 1 are derived by combining the TMI Q 1 − Q R with estimates of Q R from the Hydrologic Cycle and Earth’s Radiation Budget (HERB) algorithm originally described in L’Ecuyer and Stephens (2003

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