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  • Infrared radiation x
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Donald Wylie

stratus clouds move inland showing a morning maxima opposed to the near solar noon maxima of most land cumulus clouds. This paper uses the data from High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) flown on the NOAA series of operational polar-orbiting satellites. The HIRS data were not used in the ISCCP. Jin et al. (1996) compared cloud cover statistics from the ISCCP to HIRS ( Wylie and Menzel 1999 analysis) and found that the HIRS reported 10%–15% more cloud cover from high thin cirrus clouds

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T. N. Krishnamurti, C. Gnanaseelan, A. K. Mishra, and A. Chakraborty

, contributes to stabilization in the afternoon hours, the early morning maximum over the region is attributed to the nocturnal destabilization of high clouds from longwave radiation. The eastern plateau encounters mostly shallower towering cumulus clouds; this exhibits the largest growth from the afternoon surface heating of the plateau. The member models have phase errors as large as 9–12 h over these regions and do not distinguish between the plateau and the foothills. The geographical locations of the

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Munehisa K. Yamamoto, Fumie A. Furuzawa, Atsushi Higuchi, and Kenji Nakamura

. The PR directly detects radiation backscattered by precipitation particles. The microwave radiometer observes the integrated effects of radiation both emitted from the surface and hydrometeors and scattered by solid hydrometeors. The infrared radiometer detects cloud-top emissions. Life stages of convective precipitation systems can be determined by combining PR, TMI, and VIRS ( Rajendran and Nakazawa 2005 ; Kondo et al. 2006 ) or PR and VIRS data ( Masunaga et al. 2005 ). Sensor signatures can

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Song Yang, Kwo-Sen Kuo, and Eric A. Smith

, 1992 : Surface forcing of the infrared cooling profile over Tibetan Plateau. Part I: Influence of relative longwave radiative heating at high altitude. J. Atmos. Sci. , 49 , 805 – 822 . Smith , E. A. , E. R. Reiter , and Y. Gao , 1986 : Transition of the surface energy budget in the Gobi desert between spring and summer seasons. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 25 , 1725 – 1740 . Smith , G. L. , and D. A. Rutan , 2003 : The diurnal cycle of outgoing longwave radiation from Earth

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R. Cifelli, S. W. Nesbitt, S. A. Rutledge, W. A. Petersen, and S. Yuter

discrepancies between the simulated and observed diurnal cycle of precipitation exist ( Yang and Slingo 2001 , their Figs. 3 and 8; Dai and Trenberth 2004 , their Fig. 12). The Yang and Slingo study used infrared (IR) brightness temperature data to infer precipitation, and the Dai and Trenberth study used Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) surface reports to estimate precipitation. Given the crude relationship between IR brightness temperature and rainfall at the surface (e.g., Arkin and

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