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Stefano Migliorini

1. Introduction Over the last decade or recent decades there has been a formidable increase in the amount of data that is being acquired by satellite sounding instruments and disseminated to operational meteorological centers for assimilation, particularly in the infrared spectral region. At ECMWF, the infrared sounding instruments that are currently monitored or assimilated are the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), on board the EUMETSAT Polar System MetOp polar

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Daryl T. Kleist and Kayo Ide

at NCEP and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have simulated observations that were operationally available in 2005, including radiosonde, surface, aircraft, satellite-derived atmospheric motion vectors, wind profiler, ship and buoy, and scatterometer-based surface winds. Additionally, satellite microwave and infrared brightness temperature temperatures were simulated [e.g., High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A), AMSU

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Mark Buehner, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Alain Beaulne, Cécilien Charette, Louis Garand, Sylvain Heilliette, Ervig Lapalme, Stéphane Laroche, Stephen R. Macpherson, Josée Morneau, and Ayrton Zadra

improvements were made to both the forecast model and the data assimilation system. Some significant changes include the following: extending the model and assimilation domain in the vertical to fully include the stratosphere starting on 22 June 2009 ( Charron et al. 2012 ); improving model forecasts of tropical cyclones starting on 12 July 2011 ( Zadra et al. 2014a ); adding new observations [Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), SSMIS, and a reduced thinning of all radiances] starting on

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James A. Cummings and Ole Martin Smedstad

Large et al. (1994) . In this study, the ocean model used 3-hourly Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) forcing obtained from the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC), which includes air temperature at 2 m, surface specific humidity, net surface shortwave and longwave radiation, total (large scale plus convective) precipitation, ground/sea temperature, zonal and meridional wind velocities at 10 m, mean sea level pressure, and dewpoint temperature at 2

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María E. Dillon, Yanina García Skabar, Juan Ruiz, Eugenia Kalnay, Estela A. Collini, Pablo Echevarría, Marcos Saucedo, Takemasa Miyoshi, and Masaru Kunii

( Kain 2004 ), WSM6 for microphysics ( Hong and Lim 2006 ), Yonsei University (YSU) for the planetary boundary layer ( Hong Noh and Dudhia 2006 ), RRTM for longwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), Dudhia for shortwave radiation ( Dudhia 1989 ), and the Noah land surface model ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ). The selection of these options corresponds to previous results carried out over South America ( Ruiz et al. 2010 ; Saulo et al. 2008 ), although we are aware that it is not possible to choose the

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