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Arun Kumar, Jieshun Zhu, and Wanqiu Wang

; Zhu et al. 2017 ) and the representation of diurnal and intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) variations ( Ge et al. 2017 ). The quantification of improvements in the MJO skill is generally based on the assessment of prediction skill of real-time multivariate MJO (RMM; Wheeler and Hendon 2004 ) indices that are derived based on (i) meridional means of daily outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and zonal wind at 850 and 200 hPa (U850 and U200, respectively) (after the removal of interannual

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Beata Latos, Thierry Lefort, Maria K. Flatau, Piotr J. Flatau, Donaldi S. Permana, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Jaka A. I. Paski, Erwin Makmur, Eko Sulystyo, Philippe Peyrillé, Zhe Feng, Adrian J. Matthews, and Jerome M. Schmidt

extreme rainfall and gives insight into their connection with equatorial waves, and section 5 provides the summary and conclusions. 2. Data and methods a. Satellite data Gridded daily outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) ( Liebmann and Smith 1996 ) on a regular 2.5° × 2.5° latitude–longitude grid for the 1 January 1998–30 June 2019 period was used. Daily precipitation estimates (combined microwave-IR) based on the 3-hourly Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) ( Huffman et al. 2010 ) gridded

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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

) and (c) are the input data for the MEOF analysis. Covariances between unscaled first PC time series with NDJ (d) net shortwave radiation, (e) latent heat flux, and (f) horizontal advection and surface oceanic current. (g) First mode PC time series, with dashed lines indicating the one standard deviation thresholds and blue (red) solid circles indicating strong (weak) CT years. At the same time, the winter monsoon is strongly modulated by various tropical remote forcings, such as ENSO ( Wang et al

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Ming Feng, Yongliang Duan, Susan Wijffels, Je-Yuan Hsu, Chao Li, Huiwu Wang, Yang Yang, Hong Shen, Jianjun Liu, Chunlin Ning, and Weidong Yu

using fast ocean profiling platforms to resolve the very near-surface ocean temperature structures, as well as the key atmospheric variables such as humidity, air temperature, vector winds, and radiation parameters; such measurements in the region are unprecedented, to assess the upper-ocean response to the MJO forcing in the Indonesian–Australian Basin as compared to other regions in the Indian Ocean. The data will be used to understand the coupled model performance in capturing the scale, strength

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

simulations using a cell-tracking algorithm . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 141 , 557 – 581 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00274.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-11-00274.1 Cao , G. , and G. J. Zhang , 2017 : Role of vertical structure of convective heating in MJO simulation in NCAR CAM5.3 . J. Climate , 30 , 7423 – 7439 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0913.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0913.1 Chou , M.-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

precipitation analysis over the continental United States . Water Resour. Res. , 49 , 8174 – 8186 , doi: 10.1002/2012WR012795 . 10.1002/2012WR012795 Chou , M.-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, 93 pp. Climate Prediction Center , 2011 : NOAA CPC morphing technique (CMORPH) global precipitation analyses 30 minute estimates at 8 km resolution. Accessed 1 August 2015. [Available online

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

and December 2013 was chosen to compute OLR climatology. The OLR for December 2016 is obtained from NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of OLR version 1.2 ( Lee and NOAA CDR Program 2011 ), which is estimated from High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) radiance observations with a 2-day lag. It is given daily with 1° × 1° horizontal resolution. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim, hereinafter ERA-Int; Dee et al. 2011 ) is utilized for zonal

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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

. Pauluis , and F. Zhang , 2018 : Atmospheric overturning across multiple scales of an MJO event during the CINDY/DYNAMO campaign . J. Atmos. Sci. , 75 , 381 – 399 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-17-0060.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0060.1 Chou , M.-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, Vol. 3, 85 pp., https://archive.org/details/nasa_techdoc_19950009331 . Coppin , D. , and G

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Giuseppe Torri, David K. Adams, Huiqun Wang, and Zhiming Kuang

Chen , S. S. , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 1997 : Diurnal variation and life-cycle of deep convective systems over the Tropical Pacific Warm Pool . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 123 , 357 – 388 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49712353806 . 10.1002/qj.49712353806 Chou , M. D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, Vol. 3, 85 pp., https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950009331

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Jieshun Zhu, Wanqiu Wang, and Arun Kumar

region strengthen or weaken the surface winds, which reduce or enhance the latent heat flux (LHF) at the ocean surface. Further, variations in solar shortwave radiation flux (SWF) at the surface associated with MJO-related changes in cloudiness also occur. The combination of these flux variations can induce SST anomalies to the east and west of the convective region. The zonal SST gradient causes zonal changes in surface moist static energy and provides surface forcing, which induces the convection

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