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Kexin Zhang, Mitchell D. Goldberg, Fengying Sun, Lihang Zhou, Walter W. Wolf, Changyi Tan, Nicholas R. Nalli, and Quanhua Liu

and Arkin 1992 ; Chiodi and Harrison 2010 ; Xie and Arkin 1996 ). The trends of OLR have been used to study climate feedbacks and processes (e.g., Chu and Wang 1997 ; Susskind et al. 2012 ). Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) ( Wielicki et al. 1996 ) was designed to extend the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data record of TOA longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW) fluxes. Since the infrared (IR) radiance measured in space by radiometers and spectrometers is part of the

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E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, I. Barker-Snook, R. Niclòs, V. Garcia Santos, P. J. Minnett, F. M. Göttsche, L. Poutier, N. Morgan, T. Nightingale, W. Wimmer, J. Høyer, K. Zhang, M. Yang, L. Guan, M. Arbelo, and C. J. Donlon

the radiation temperature scales of the PTB and the NPL in the temperature range from −57 °C to 50 °C . Meas. Sci. Technol. , 24 , 065002 , https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/24/6/065002 . 10.1088/0957-0233/24/6/065002 Legrand , M. , C. Pietras , G. Brogniez , M. Haeffelin , N. K. Abuhassan , and M. Sicard , 2000 : A high-accuracy multiwavelength radiometer for in situ measurements in the thermal infrared. Part I: Characterization of the instrument . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol

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Anders V. Lindfors, Ian A. Mackenzie, Simon F. B. Tett, and Lei Shi

1. Introduction The High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) instruments on board National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites have sampled the earth’s atmosphere and surface since late 1978. HIRS is a cross-track scanning radiometer that measures brightness temperatures (radiances) in 19 infrared channels, with one additional channel in the visible. It was originally developed for weather forecasting, providing information on atmospheric temperature

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Quanhua Liu, Changyong Cao, and Fuzhong Weng

). Microwave water emissivity can be calculated from surface temperature, wind vector, and salinity ( Liu et al. 2011 ). The infrared water bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model is used for the CRTM direct reflectance to compute reflected solar radiation ( Sayer et al. 2010 ). Using UV and visible spectral refractive indices of water, the BRDF model in the CRTM is also used for UV and visible measurements over water. The BRDF model is described by Fresnel reflection coefficients for

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M. M. Schreier, B. H. Kahn, A. Eldering, D. A. Elliott, E. Fishbein, F. W. Irion, and T. S. Pagano

coverage results from the gaseous absorption present within these channels, while the window channels are relatively unaffected. In the following subsection, the temperature and water vapor profile information from AIRS is used to sort variability in Δ T b because both temperature and water vapor will affect the emission of infrared radiation in channels with gaseous absorption and may couple to spatial and spectral mismatches. b. Correlation of ΔT b to temperature and water vapor profiles In Fig. 6

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P. Jonathan Gero, John A. Dykema, and James G. Anderson

optical watt and the electrical watt ( Martin et al. 1985 ). The other is source based through the use of blackbodies with SI-traceable thermometry whose radiance can be described by the Planck function for blackbody radiation ( Fox 2000 ). Although national meteorology institutes have built their primary radiometric scales around the detector-based method, on spaceborne infrared sounders lower uncertainties may be achieved with source-based methods. A review of remote sensing calibration by National

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Carlton W. Ulbrich and David Atlas

SEPTEMBER 1985 CARLTON W. ULBRICH AND DAVID ATLAS 331Extinction of Visible and Infrared Radiation in Rain:Comparison of Theory and Experiment CARLTON W. ULBRICH*NAS/NRC Resident Research Associate, Laboratory for Oceans, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 DAVID ATLAS**Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771(Manuscript

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Changyong Cao, Kenneth Jarva, and Pubu Ciren

1. Introduction Radiances observed by the High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) are assimilated directly in operational numerical weather prediction, and are used, in conjunction with measurements from other instruments, to calculate the atmosphere’s vertical temperature and moisture profiles, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH). Other retrievals include ocean surface temperatures, total atmospheric ozone levels, precipitable water, cloud height

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Lei Liu, Xuejin Sun, Feng Chen, Shijun Zhao, and Taichang Gao

sensors. SPIE Opt. Eng. , 32 , 1853 – 1895 . Peura, M. , Visa A. , and Kostamo P. , 1996 : A new approach to land-based cloud classification. Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition (ICPR’96), Vienna, Austria, IEEE Computer Society Press, 143–147 . Shaw, J. A. , and Thurairajah B. , 2003 : Short-term Arctic cloud statistics at NSA from the infrared cloud imager. Proc. 13th Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, Broomfield, CO, ARM. [Available online at

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Aronne Merrelli and David D. Turner

1. Introduction High-spectral-resolution measurements of earth’s upwelling infrared radiation have proven extremely useful in a variety of atmospheric science applications. Originally developed as atmospheric sounders to infer profiles of water vapor and temperature, current instruments [Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)] routinely produce high-quality spectral observations. These instruments (as well as most infrared sensors) are based

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