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Tingting Gong and Dehai Luo

attracted a great attention ( Fang and Wallace 1994 ; Sorteberg and Kvingedal 2006 ; Francis and Hunter 2006 ; D. S. Park et al. 2015 ; H. S. Park et al. 2015 ; Sorokina et al. 2016 ). In recent years, several mechanisms have been proposed to account for the cause of the winter Arctic sea ice decline ( Francis et al. 2005 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010 ; Screen et al. 2010 ; Cavalieri and Parkinson 2012 ). For example, the increased downward infrared radiation (IR) ( D. S. Park et al. 2015 ; H. S

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Ming-Dah Chou, David P. Kratz, and William Ridgway

424 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME4Infrared Radiation Parameterizations in Numerical Climate ModelsMING-DAH CHOU, DAVID P. KRATZ* AND WILLIAM RIDGWAY ~'Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland(Manuscript received 25 June 1990, in final form 5 November 1990) ABSTRACT Parameterizations for infrared radiation (IR) in clear atmospheres can be

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P. Jonathan Gero and David D. Turner

. Furthermore, this work lays the foundation for the use of global infrared radiance measurements from satellite instruments to ascertain global climate trends and test general circulation models. Acknowledgments The data used in this analysis were obtained from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Climate and Environmental Sciences Division. This work was supported by NASA Grant

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Kun Wu, Jiangnan Li, Jason Cole, Xianglei Huang, Knut von Salzen, and Feng Zhang

1. Introduction Radiative transfer is a critical part of the climate system. About 30% of the incoming solar energy is reflected by the Earth–atmosphere system ( Ellingson and Fels 1991 ), while the remaining part is absorbed. To maintain an equilibrium energy state, the thermal infrared radiation is emitted by Earth and the atmosphere. Most greenhouse gases in the atmosphere allow the solar rays to pass through and warm the Earth–atmosphere system but generally prevent infrared radiation from

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Yi Huang

1. Introduction When thermal infrared (IR) radiation (often termed longwave radiation, in comparison to the solar radiation of shorter wavelength) emitted by the earth’s surface is transmitted through the atmosphere, it is absorbed by greenhouse gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, etc., as well as by clouds. The atmosphere radiates thermal emission back to the surface in return and thus maintains a much higher surface temperature than otherwise (if the atmosphere did not exist

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Ashok Sinha and John E. Harries

. Davies, 1989: Line shape and the water vapor continuum. Atmos. Res., 23, 229–241. ——, M. J. Iacono, and J.-L. Moncet, 1992: Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: Application to water vapour. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 15 761–15 785. Collins, W. D., and A. K. Inamdar, 1995: Validation of clear-sky fluxes for tropical oceans from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. J. Climate, 8, 569–578. Davies, G. R., 1993: The far infrared continuum absorption of water

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Tingting Gong, Steven Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

; Screen and Simmonds 2010a ; Serreze et al. 2012 ; Ghatak and Miller 2013 ), although these processes are not necessarily mutually exclusive. The latest climate models still underestimate the rate of Arctic sea ice melting ( Stroeve et al. 2012b ) and the Arctic SAT increase ( Koenigk et al. 2013 ), indicating that an important process is either missing or misrepresented by most models. Here, we present evidence that an increase in the downward infrared radiation (IR) associated with remote wave

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R. J. Bantges, H. E. Brindley, X. H. Chen, X. L. Huang, J. E. Harries, and J. E. Murray

infrared region of the spectrum to illustrate challenges associated with identifying robust changes in spectral outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) in existing records. We make use of three different sets of observations; first the Interferometric Infrared Spectrometer (IRIS) on Nimbus-4 ( Hanel et al. 1972 ), second the Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases (IMG) on Advanced Earth Observing Satellite 1 ( ADEOS I ; Kobayashi 1999 ), and finally the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument

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Michael S. Town, Von P. Walden, and Stephen G. Warren

, and therefore the longwave upwelling flux. The effect of the shortwave cloud radiative forcing is not directly correlated with the longwave cloud radiative forcing because cloud optical depth differs significantly between visible and infrared wavelengths for the same liquid water path, particle size, and phase. Therefore, the relationships between LUF min , clear-sky LUF, and cloudy-sky LUF are more variable when insolation is substantial than when longwave radiation dominates the radiation budget

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Yi Huang, Stephen S. Leroy, and James G. Anderson

advantage of the infrared (IR) spectral features of climate forcings of greenhouse gases and feedbacks of temperature, water vapor, and clouds and quantifies each of them by partitioning the total change in the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) spectrum. One limitation of this method when applied to IR spectral measurement, however, is the ambiguity issue. Some feedbacks have similar infrared spectral fingerprints: when their fingerprints are obscured by uncertainties, it becomes difficult to quantify

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