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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

understanding, let us consider the situation in the absence of phytoplankton (blue case). Were it not for the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Sea of Japan, SST in mid-May would be reduced by 0.8°C because of the deep penetration of solar radiation below the surface mixed layer. The concentration of phytoplankton is not critical for penetration of both infrared and visible radiation wavelength bands of red/yellow colors, because these are absorbed within the uppermost layer (shallower than a few meters

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Yi-Hui Wang and W. Timothy Liu

latent heat, the data are valuable for understanding the vertical structure of atmospheric responses (e.g., Kummerow et al. 2000 ). Cloud-top temperature (K), outgoing longwave radiation (W m −2 ), air temperature, and geopotential height from 1000 to 300 hPa since 2003 are obtained from the combined product of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit ( Chahine et al. 2006 ). For simplicity, the combined product is referred to as the AIRS data. The 1° gridded

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Shusaku Sugimoto

available from 1985 to 2012. The SST product of OAFlux is based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Optimum Interpolation SST (OISST), which is based on Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared satellite data (AVHRR-only product), with a high spatial resolution of ¼° (latitude) × ¼° (longitude) ( Reynolds et al. 2007 ); the ¼° OISST data were averaged onto the 1° OAFlux grid. The daily latent and sensible heat fluxes were computed using the Tropical Ocean and

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Youichi Tanimoto, Kou Shimoyama, and Shoichi Mori

thermocouple is at greater risk of being mechanically destroyed by the collisions of small particles than the thicker one, the temperature record of the former is less influenced by the radiation emitted from the helicopter body and the ambient air. In our observations, the records from the two types of thermocouple are compared. The HUMICAP sensor is covered by a ventilation filter cap of 8- μ m thickness, preventing small particles from damaging or adhering to the sensor. Another thermocouple is

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

.1126/science.1091901 . 10.1126/science.1091901 Chou , M.-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, 92 pp. Davis , C. A. , and K. A. Emanuel , 1991 : Potential vorticity diagnostics of cyclogenesis . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 119 , 1929 – 1953 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1991)119<1929:PVDOC>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1991)119<1929:PVDOC>2.0.CO;2 Dee , D. P. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The ERA

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