Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 76 items for :

  • Infrared radiation x
  • Earth Interactions x
  • All content x
Clear All
Kenta Ogawa and Thomas Schmugge

1. Introduction Accurately characterizing the surface emissivity is necessary for correctly determining the longwave radiation leaving the surface, and thus, for determining the surface radiation budget. This is particularly true for nonvegetated arid regions. Therefore, emissivity is an important parameter for climate studies ( Prabhakara and Dalu, 1976 ; Wilber et al., 1999 ; Zhou et al., 2003a ). For example, for a daily average surface temperature of 295 K and a clear and dry sky, the

Full access
Ayan H. Chaudhuri and Rui M. Ponte

:// .] Bromwich , D. , Y.-H. Kuo , M. Serreze , J. Walsh , L.-S. Bai , M. Barlage , K. Hines , and A. Slater , 2010 : Arctic System Reanalysis: Call for community involvement . Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union , 91 , 13 – 14 , doi: 10.1029/2010EO020001 . Chou , M.-D. , M. J. Suarez , X. Z. Liang , and M. M.-H. Yan 2001 : A thermal infrared radiation parameterization for atmospheric studies. NASA Global Modeling

Full access
Lunche Wang, Wei Gong, Yingying Ma, and Miao Zhang

relationship between climate change and carbon cycling processes. NPP is sensitive to many controls, and climate plays a major role in NPP spatial and temporal variation ( Zhao et al. 2006 ). Climatic factors affect vegetation NPP in a variety of ways during photosynthesis: for example, lower rainfall or cloudiness may decrease NPP by lowering soil moisture in dry regions, while increased cloudiness may also decrease NPP by reducing the availability of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in moist

Full access
Aubrey R. Jones and Nathaniel A. Brunsell

. They showed that anomalously high soil moisture leads to an increase in the flux of high moist static energy air into the boundary layer from the surface through an increase in net surface radiation. An increase in the concentration of moist static energy occurs through a reduction in the height of the boundary layer, which occurs as a result of the anomalously moist soil. They attributed the increase in the frequency and magnitude of convective rainfall events to the increase in the amount of

Full access
Peiyun Zhu, Susan J. Cheng, Zachary Butterfield, Gretchen Keppel-Aleks, and Allison L. Steiner

1. Introduction Clouds are a major driver of Earth’s climate ( Yao and Del Genio 1999 ; Andrews et al. 2012 ; Stephens 2005 ) in part because they alter Earth’s radiative balance by reflecting incoming solar radiation (e.g., the planetary albedo) and absorbing outgoing terrestrial radiation (e.g., the greenhouse effect). Specific properties of clouds—including phase, droplet concentration and size, and liquid water path—influence how much clouds absorb and scatter incoming solar radiation

Full access
Arindam Samanta, Sangram Ganguly, Eric Vermote, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, and Ranga B. Myneni

dramatically ( Figure 5 ). Atmospheric effect at blue is much greater than at red, because scattering of solar radiation in the atmosphere increases nonlinearly with decrease in wavelength; this can easily result in blue band reflectance being greater than red band reflectance in situations of high aerosol loads, which will result in spuriously high values of EVI. Moreover, EVI will also increase if near-infrared reflectance increases as a result of incomplete atmospheric correction. These effects are

Full access
Grant L. Harley, James King, and Justin T. Maxwell

the surface radiative balance and total photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for C3 plants in an Asian dryland ecosystem. Atmospheric dust deposition can be an important source of new phosphorous (P) inputs into ecosystems and produce increased vegetation growth, particularly for tropical/subtropical forests limited in P ( Swap et al. 1992 ; Chadwick et al. 1999 ; Okin et al. 2004 ; Bristow et al. 2010 ; Yu et al. 2015 ). Specifically, African mineral dust aerosols were found to account

Full access
Mohammad H. Mokhtari, Ibrahim Busu, Hossein Mokhtari, Gholamreza Zahedi, Leila Sheikhattar, and Mohammad A. Movahed

1. Introduction Surface albedo is a key physical parameter for estimating shortwave radiation balance and, as a result, for modeling land surface energy balance ( Bhattacharya et al. 2009 ). Albedo is used to estimate the amount of energy reflected back to the space in the energy balance equation. The energy absorbed by Earth’s surface, considered as residual, is determined when the incoming solar energy is subtracted from the outgoing solar energy in the energy balance equation. Areas with

Full access
Daniel F. Steinhoff, Andrew J. Monaghan, Lars Eisen, Michael J. Barlage, Thomas M. Hopson, Isaac Tarakidzwa, Karielys Ortiz-Rosario, Saul Lozano-Fuentes, Mary H. Hayden, Paul E. Bieringer, and Carlos M. Welsh Rodríguez

information obtained from geostationary satellite infrared imagery. CMORPH provides some of the most reliable estimates for tropical summer rainfall compared to other satellite- and model-based rainfall products ( Ebert et al. 2007 ). CMORPH data, which cover the globe from 60°S to 60°N, were bilinearly interpolated from the four surrounding grid points to each HOBO site. Optional variables include either downward incident shortwave and longwave radiation or cloud fraction (low, middle, and high), soil

Full access
Thomas F. Lee, Francis J. Turk, Jeffrey Hawkins, and Kim Richardson

monitored by aircraft, certain subregions are often primarily assessed using satellite data. Unfortunately, most visible and infrared images have shortcomings that make them less than ideal for tropical cyclone reconnaissance. First, cirrus shields often obscure important low-level structure, including rainbands and precipitation-free circulation centers. Second, high-resolution visible images are only available during the daytime, forcing nighttime reliance on infrared images, which usually do not show

Full access