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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

version of SW in is not currently available at 3-hourly time step (daily or monthly only). Ground heat flux G is computed as a function of the daily mean Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) surface skin temperature following the method of Bennett et al. (2008) . The SRB radiation products above (all at 1.0° spatial resolution) serve as inputs to the latent heat flux estimation, along with a suite of meteorological and surface vegetation datasets

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

dynamical core and includes a wide array of radiation, microphysics, and PBL options as well as two-way nesting and variational data assimilation capabilities. Recently, work has been performed to develop a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Unified WRF (NU-WRF; ) modeling system at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). NU-WRF is built upon the ARW-WRF model, and incorporates and unifies NASA’s unique experience and

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Xubin Zeng, Zhuo Wang, and Aihui Wang

al. 2003 ), CLM does the computations based on sand and clay percentages. Noah prescribes surface albedos that are variable seasonally and spatially, while CLM computes surface albedos through two-stream radiative transfer of diffuse and direct radiation at visible and near-infrared bands. Over bare soil, the effect of soil moisture on surface albedo is also considered in CLM ( Wang et al. 2005 ). In the Noah version 2.7.1 (as used in the NCEP global forecasting model), surface emissivity is

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Agustín Robles-Morua, Enrique R. Vivoni, and Alex S. Mayer

radiation suggests that correspondence may exist between runoff mechanisms, which typically depend on seasonal wetness, and the land–atmosphere interactions arising during the NAM. Several studies have investigated how soil moisture plays a role in land–atmosphere exchanges and their impact on subsequent rainfall generation in the NAM region (e.g., Small 2001 ; Xu et al. 2004 ; Vivoni et al. 2009 ). This interaction arises from a positive soil moisture–rainfall feedback ( Eltahir 1998 ) that has been

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