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D. Carrer, S. Lafont, J.-L. Roujean, J.-C. Calvet, C. Meurey, P. Le Moigne, and I. F. Trigo

1. Introduction Land surface models (LSMs) used to monitor biophysical variables in hydrological and/or environmental applications require detailed information on the characteristics of the incoming solar or infrared irradiance. Together with atmospheric variables like air temperature, air humidity, precipitation, and wind speed, reliable hourly estimates of downwelling surface shortwave (DSSF) and longwave (DSLF) radiation fluxes are needed to drive the LSMs. These two quantities can be

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Xiao-Yong Zhuge, Fan Yu, and Cheng-Wei Zhang

microwave sensors . J. Appl. Meteor. , 40 , 1801 – 1820 . Lethbridge, M. , 1967 : Precipitation probability and satellite radiation data . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 95 , 487 – 490 . Lovejoy, S. , and Austin G. L. , 1979 : The delineation of rain areas from visible and infrared satellite data for GATE and mid-latitudes . Atmos.–Ocean , 17 , 1048 – 1054 . Luque, A. , Gómez I. , and Manso M. , 2006 : Convective rainfall rate multi-channel algorithm for Meteosat-7 and radar derived

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Fan Yu, Xiao-Yong Zhuge, and Cheng-Wei Zhang

determined rainfall areas according to infrared (IR) brightness temperature and visible (VIS) albedo. The half-hour or one-hour rainfall measured at a certain observation station mainly depends on the following two aspects ( Follansbee 1973 ; Griffith et al. 1978 ): 1) the rain rate within this period and 2) the coverage duration of rainfall clouds generating this specific rainfall at this observation station. Obviously, to improve the accuracy of satellite rainfall retrieval, these two problems must be

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Shruti A. Upadhyaya, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Jonathan J. Gourley, and Robert J. Kuligowski

GOES-17 satellites, other new generation GEO sensors include Spinning Enhanced Visible Infrared Imager (SEVIRI; Meteosat-8 , Meteosat-9 , Meteosat-10 , Meteosat-11 ), Multichannel Scanning Unit-Geostationary (MSU-GS; Electro-L N1–2 ), Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI; Himawari-8 and Himawari-9 ), Advanced Geosynchronous Radiation Imager (AGRI; FY-4A ), Advanced Meteorological Imager (AMI; GEO-KOMPSAT-2A ), all with more than 10 spectral channels. These next generation GEO satellites provide

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Zhong Liu

describes the data and methods, section 3 presents the results, and section 4 presents the summary and discussion. 2. Datasets The TMPA algorithm ( Huffman 1997 ; Huffman et al. 2007 , 2010 ; Huffman and Bolvin 2014 ) consists of multiple independent precipitation estimates from various passive microwave (PMW) sources ( Table 1 ), microwave-adjusted merged geo-infrared (IR) and monthly accumulated rain gauge analysis from GPCC ( Schneider et al. 2011 ). The preprocessing of 3B43 is as follows

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Dirk Meetschen, Bart J. J. M. van den Hurk, Felix Ament, and Matthias Drusch

description of clouds. Although cloud microphysical properties characterize the interaction between clouds and radiation, cloud cover has probably the most significant impact on the radiation balance at the surface. Comparisons between modeled clouds and observations indicate that the spatial distribution of clouds is not well represented by NWP models ( Crewell et al. 2002 ). Satellite measurements in the visible and infrared spectral range have been extensively used to detect clouds (e.g., Feijt et al

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J. W. Pomeroy, R. L. H. Essery, and W. D. Helgason

controlling the SST under various environmental conditions can be diagnosed and the applicability of the model for estimating SST can evaluated for global applications. 2. Theory The longwave exitance from a snow surface can be found using the assumption that it is a near blackbody from the Stefan–Boltzmann formulation, where ε is the emissivity in the thermal infrared range (wavelength λ from 8 to 12 μ m), is the incoming longwave radiation to the surface, σ = 5.67 × 10 −8 W m −2 K −4 is

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Don Cline, Simon Yueh, Bruce Chapman, Boba Stankov, Al Gasiewski, Dallas Masters, Kelly Elder, Richard Kelly, Thomas H. Painter, Steve Miller, Steve Katzberg, and Larry Mahrt

S. , 2002 : Polarimetric radar remote sensing of ocean surface wind. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 40 , 793 – 800 . 10.1109/TGRS.2002.1006350 Fig . 1. Map of CLPX study areas where airborne data were collected. Nominal flight tracks for DC-8 and P-3 aircraft (active and passive microwave, including AIRSAR, PSR, and POLSCAT) and for gamma radiation snow surveys are shown. Fig . 2. High-resolution color-infrared orthoimagery of a portion of the Spring Creek ISA (view to southwest

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Liqing Peng, Zhongwang Wei, Zhenzhong Zeng, Peirong Lin, Eric F. Wood, and Justin Sheffield

all-sky and clear-sky conditions. These fluxes were calculated by feeding the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) radiative transfer model with cloud properties retrieved from the ISCCP-D1 dataset, the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) temperature and humidity profile, and other ancillary data. 2) Surface radiation budget The NASA/GEWEX SRB Rel3.0 and 3.1 provide global surface and TOA

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Wenli Wang, Kun Yang, Long Zhao, Ziyan Zheng, Hui Lu, Ali Mamtimin, Baohong Ding, Xin Li, Lin Zhao, Hongyi Li, Tao Che, and John C. Moore

background is the topography of the Tibetan Plateau represented by the hill shade from SRTM, provided by Geospatial Data Cloud site, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The measurements are described in detail in the corresponding references. The four-component radiation sensor at Dadongshu-Yakou and Tanggula station is a CNR4. The shortwave radiation sensor at D105 and ANNI station is a CM21 and the longwave radiation sensor is a precision infrared radiometer. Radiation

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