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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, M. Vertenstein, and C. S. B. Grimmond

near-infrared (NIR) waveband; b denotes direct beam ( b = dir) or diffuse ( b = dif) albedos; and f u ,sno is the fraction of surface covered with snow ( Bonan 1996 ). The snow-free urban albedos α b u ,Λ are input parameters. Snow albedos are set to α b sno,VIS = 0.66 and α b sno,NIR = 0.56, which fall about in the middle of the range given by Oke (1987) . 2) Incident-direct solar radiation The direct beam solar radiation incident on the roof is simply the atmospheric solar radiation

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, and M. Vertenstein

. Note that some of the parameter perturbations may be less than ±20% because of physical constraints (e.g., emissivities must be less than 1.0). The results are displayed in Taylor diagrams for convenience ( Taylor 2001 ). Figure 1 shows the sensitivity of simulated net radiation and sensible, latent, and storage heat fluxes to morphological, radiative, and thermal parameters for Mexico City. The symbols show the model performance using the baseline parameters as discussed in Part I , and each

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Vinodkumar, A. Chandrasekar, K. Alapaty, and Dev Niyogi

precipitable water vapor. The temperature sounding data are from the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS)/2 instrument on board TOVS, which provides data on 15 vertical levels. The NOAA Advanced TOVS (ATOVS) satellite makes a morning and an evening pass (around 0730 and 1930 Indian standard time). Hence, the ATOVS temperature and humidity profiles are ingested at 0000 and 1200 UTC. The QuikSCAT passes 2 times per day and the MM5 model ingests its data at 0000 and 1200 UTC. The QuikSCAT

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Young-Kwon Lim, Ming Cai, Eugenia Kalnay, and Liming Zhou

° resolution covering the period from 1981 to 1994. The reflectance measured from channel 1 (visible: 0.58–0.68 μ m) and channel 2 (near-infrared: 0.725–1.0 μ m) are used to calculate the index. The NDVI value is defined as the ratio of the difference to the total reflectance: (channel 2 − channel 1)/(channel 2 + channel 1). Green leaves commonly have larger reflectances in the near-infrared than in the visible range. Clouds, water, and snow have larger reflectances in the visible than in the near-infrared

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