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Xiaoguang Chen, Guoping Tian, Zhilong Qin, and Xiang Bi

other relevant weather variables. Weather variables, such as T min , T max , precipitation, and solar radiation, are highly correlated. If other weather variables were not considered when estimating the relationship between T min (or T max ) and yield, it would cause biased parameter estimates of the T min (or T max ) variable. Because of the methodological issues mentioned above, empirical findings reported in these earlier studies estimating the effects of temperature on wheat yield in

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Douglas Hayhoe, Shawn Bullock, and Katharine Hayhoe

. 7 The authors now realize this is not correct. A little less than half of the sun’s energy is visible light, with about the same amount being infrared radiation and the remainder ultraviolet. See Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment, available online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observatory website, accessed 23 April 2011. 8 The authors did informal research using 35 item multiple-choice diagnostics of force and motion with over a hundred secondary

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Johannes Schmetz and W. Paul Menzel

contribution to the success of global NWP. A facet of the Initial Joint Polar System (IJPS) that deserves highlighting is that NOAA and EUMETSAT shared instruments. MetOp flies the U.S. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS, on MetOp-A and MetOp-B ), and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) instruments. NOAA-18 and -19 fly the European Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS). We see this sharing as an early example toward a potential future

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Juan Declet-Barreto, Kim Knowlton, G. Darrel Jenerette, and Alexander Buyantuev

adopting heat-mitigation plans as part of climate resilience and adaptation planning ( Hewitt et al. 2014 ). UHI mitigation typically consists of reducing the amount of solar radiation that is absorbed by impervious surfaces. Two common mechanisms for achieving this include altering surface covers by increasing the fraction of total solar radiation reflected (i.e., albedo) and increasing vegetative cover. Increasing albedo can reduce the amount of heat absorbed during daytime hours, thereby reducing

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Markus Enenkel, Daniel Osgood, Martha Anderson, Bristol Powell, Jessica McCarty, Christopher Neigh, Mark Carroll, Margaret Wooten, Greg Husak, Christopher Hain, and Molly Brown

. Datasets 1) Rainfall Since rainfall is traditionally the most used input dataset for index insurance we analyze the performance of two different datasets. The first rainfall dataset is the African Rainfall Climatology, version 2 (ARC2), which is consistent with the Rainfall Estimation version 2 (RFE2) ( Novella and Thiaw 2013 ). However, in contrast to RFE2, ARC2 only includes data from infrared sensors and weather stations (no microwave sensors), resulting in longer time series. ARC2 is distributed

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Jason A. Otkin, Tonya Haigh, Anthony Mucia, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

flux serves to limit the role of non-moisture-related drivers of ET (e.g., solar radiation and atmospheric demand), thus leading to a more useful depiction of moisture-related stress in vegetation. Because of its foundation on diagnostic retrievals of ET, the ESI conveys useful information about vegetation health and soil moisture availability. ALEXI uses land surface temperatures retrieved from satellite thermal infrared imagery and the Norman et al. (1995) two-source energy balance model to

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Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska, Christopher A. Fiebrich, J. D. Carlson, Andrea D. Melvin, Albert J. Sutherland, Kevin A. Kloesel, Gary D. McManus, Bradley G. Illston, James E. Hocker, and Reuben Reyes

regional and statewide mesoscale networks like the Oklahoma Mesonet discussed in this paper. As of 2016, the Oklahoma Mesonet (hereinafter referred to as Mesonet) consisted of 121 stations ( Fig. 1 ) collecting data on air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, and solar radiation every 5 min as well as soil temperature every 15 min and soil moisture measurements every 30 min. Fig . 1. Location of 121 Mesonet stations as of December 2016. Average station spacing is 29 km. The data

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Johannes Möllmann, Matthias Buchholz, and Oliver Musshoff

. The NDVI is a widely used vegetation index for yield assessment, drought, and vegetation monitoring ( Kogan 1990 ; Mkhabela et al. 2005 ; Ren et al. 2008 ; Wan et al. 2004 ). The NDVI is calculated from the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands observed by the AVHRR sensors according to the formula . Healthy vegetation is characterized by little reflection of VIS and strong reflection of NIR. The green leaf pigment chlorophyll absorbs VIS for use in photosynthesis, while other

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Lawrence C. Hamilton

Arctic ice has declined, and less likely than either the now/natural or not-now groups to say that Arctic ice has recovered. This detail replicates across both surveys. 4. Real and perceived carbon dioxide Since the nineteenth century, carbon dioxide or CO 2 has been recognized as a greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, so called because it is relatively transparent to short- and medium-wavelength radiation (such as incoming ultraviolet and visible light from the sun) but tends to absorb and reradiate

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