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Richard L. Bankert, Jeremy E. Solbrig, Thomas F. Lee, and Steven D. Miller

1. Introduction Polar-orbiting satellite data have been available from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) for over 40 years. The Operational Linescan System (OLS), on board the DMSP satellites, is a two-channel radiometer with visible and infrared (IR) data sensors. A high-gain amplifier (photomultiplier tube) offers high sensitivity and a unique ability to image low levels of visible light ( Miller and Turner 2009 ; Isaacs and Barnes 1987 ). The OLS nighttime visible channel

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Miguel F. Piñeros, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, and J. Scott Tyo

satellites ( Dvorak 1975 ). In this technique, an analyst classifies the cloud scene types in visible and infrared satellite imagery and applies a set of rules to calculate the intensity estimate. The original Dvorak technique is subjective, is time intensive, and relies on the expertise of the analyst, but it is still used as the primary intensity forecasting tool in many tropical cyclone forecasting centers around the world (e.g., Velden et al. 1998 , 2006b ; Knaff et al. 2010 ). Velden et al

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Ming Liu, Jason E. Nachamkin, and Douglas L. Westphal

1. Introduction Solar and thermal infrared radiation is a fundamental mechanism for driving the energy exchange among air mass, clouds, aerosols, and land surface to maintain the thermal and dynamic systems in the atmosphere. The accurate prediction of atmospheric radiative processes, particularly cloud–radiation interaction, highly depends on the accurate calculation of radiative transfer fluxes (i.e., radiative transfer parameterizations). It has been well recognized that radiation modeling

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Wayne F. Feltz and John R. Mecikalski

thunderstorm event is explored. Using part of the array of five AERI instruments stationed across Oklahoma and Kansas as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, time series of vertical temperature and water vapor profiles, CAPE, and CIN are analyzed. These datasets provide a unique, real-time assessment of the preconvective atmosphere, not available from conventional sounding observations, which are taken only at 0000 and 1200 UTC synoptic times (or in

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Tom H. Zapotocny, James A. Jung, John F. Le Marshall, and Russ E. Treadon

-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) data, geostationary satellite atmospheric motion vectors (GEO winds) data from both the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and the Japan Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS), and Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) surface wind data. The work in this manuscript is similar to observing system experiments (OSEs) conducted with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF

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Tom H. Zapotocny, W. Paul Menzel, James A. Jung, and James P. Nelson III

types producing the aggregate impacts of Part I . The nine component data types examined are 1) rawinsonde mass observations, 2) rawinsonde wind observations (raob), 3) mass, and 4) wind observations from the GOES satellites positioned on the eastern and western coasts of North America ( GOES-8 and GOES-10 during the time frame of this study, respectively), POES observations from the 5) High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), 6) the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU), and 7) the Advanced

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Thomas F. Lee

1. Introduction Longwave infrared imagery, one of the mainstays of tropical cyclone monitoring from satellites, is an effective tracer of cirrus and the tops of tropical convection. However, over weak tropical cyclones these images can mislead an analyst because they do not show low clouds well. Visible images, on which low clouds appear prominently due to reflected solar radiation, are therefore invaluable supplements to infrared images during the daytime. Visible images have the further

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Thomas F. Lee, F. Joseph Turk, and Kim Richardson

-effect cloud along the eastern edge of Lake Michigan. The longwave infrared image ( Fig. 11 ) shows the low cloudiness over the region less distinctly. The uncorrected shortwave image ( Fig. 12 ) represents a combination of emitted terrestrial radiation and backscattered solar energy, complicating its correct interpretation. Black gray shades indicate cold, unreflecting ice cloud tops, as over Kentucky and New York State. However, other dark gray shades represent snowcover ( Allen et al. 1990 ), which is

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S. A. Ackerman, A. S. Bachmeier, K. Strabala, and M. Gunshor

meteorological satellite payloads include a radiometer that measures longwave infrared energy between 10 and 12 μ m, since this spectral region is in the “infrared window” allowing very minimal absorption of outgoing radiation by the atmospheric gases. This wavelength is often used to estimate the temperature of the surface and cloud tops. Figure 1 is an image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 11- μ m IR channel ( King et al. 1992 ), which on 13 January measured brightness

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Gregory Thompson, Randy Bullock, and Thomas F. Lee

μ m), a shortwave infrared channel sensitive to both emitted terrestrial radiation and reflected solar radiation (3.7 μ m), and two longwave infrared channels (10.8 and 11.8 μ m). The raw pixel size of the AVHRR varies with position across the satellite track but at subpoint is 1.1 km. The five channels give the capability to perform multispectral cloud analysis ( Saunders and Kriebel 1988 ) that can more effectively distinguish cloud from background than thresholding using a single channel

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