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Eric D. Skyllingstad and Simon P. de Szoeke

with higher surface winds and suppressed MJO phase moisture convergence to examine how increased surface fluxes from stronger winds affect convective activity versus externally forced moisture convergence. Simulations are conducted using a version of the Skyllingstad and Edson (2009) LES model that includes parameterizations for the radiative transfer of infrared and solar radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) along with a seven-component cloud microphysics scheme ( Thompson et al. 2008 ). Model

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Tomoe Nasuno, Tim Li, and Kazuyoshi Kikuchi

Island in the Maldives ( Ciesielski et al. 2014a ) and TRMM 3B42v7 ( Huffman et al. 2007 ) were also used to evaluate ERA-Interim. The resolution of TRMM 3B42v7 is 0.25° × 0.25° at 3-h intervals, and the daily average was used for the evaluation. Moreover, the 3-hourly globally merged infrared radiation brightness temperature (Tb) dataset with 0.5° × 0.5° resolution, which was created from the half-hourly ~4-km resolution dataset ( Janowiak et al. 2001 ), was used for discussion of high

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Brandon W. Kerns and Shuyi S. Chen

) in October 2011–January 2012 ( Yoneyama et al. 2013 ). In addition to DYNAMO, two concurrent experiments were carried out in the equatorial IO: the Cooperative Indian Ocean Experiment on Intraseasonal Variability (CINDY) and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE). For brevity, these cooperative field experiments are hereafter referred to simply as “DYNAMO.” One of the major objectives of DYNAMO was to use multiplatform, in situ, and remotely sensed

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