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John E. Janowiak, Peter Bauer, Wanqiu Wang, Phillip A. Arkin, and Jon Gottschalck

climatological features of tropical rainfall, the temporal variations of these short-range rainfall predictions did a poor job of mimicking observed variations in the tropics. In fact, Janowiak et al. (1998) concluded that the correlation between observed precipitation (based in infrared satellite data) and the NCEP-1 reanalysis (representative of models around 1990) short-range precipitation forecasts were weak to nonexistent over much of the tropical Pacific. More specifically, Hendon et al. (2000

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Thomas M. Hamill, Jeffrey S. Whitaker, Michael Fiorino, and Stanley G. Benjamin

’s quality control algorithms and forward observational operators, the full observational data stream that was ingested into the operational GSI was also ingested into the EnKF, including surface observations, rawinsondes, cloud-track winds, aircraft observations, satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultations, and satellite radiances. Satellite radiances were assimilated from the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) A and B

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Ronald Gelaro, Rolf H. Langland, Simon Pellerin, and Ricardo Todling

corresponding analyses at 1200 and 0000 UTC when a much larger number of conventional observations are present. The slightly larger values of e ( x b f ) and e ( x a f ) overall in GEOS-5 may indicate a suboptimal use of the baseline set of observations, which excludes more than half of the observations assimilated routinely in this forecast system, including radiance measurements from AIRS, AMSU-B, High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

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