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Stefano Migliorini

1. Introduction Over the last decade or recent decades there has been a formidable increase in the amount of data that is being acquired by satellite sounding instruments and disseminated to operational meteorological centers for assimilation, particularly in the infrared spectral region. At ECMWF, the infrared sounding instruments that are currently monitored or assimilated are the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), on board the EUMETSAT Polar System MetOp polar

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Daryl T. Kleist and Kayo Ide

at NCEP and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have simulated observations that were operationally available in 2005, including radiosonde, surface, aircraft, satellite-derived atmospheric motion vectors, wind profiler, ship and buoy, and scatterometer-based surface winds. Additionally, satellite microwave and infrared brightness temperature temperatures were simulated [e.g., High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A), AMSU

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Mark Buehner, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Alain Beaulne, Cécilien Charette, Louis Garand, Sylvain Heilliette, Ervig Lapalme, Stéphane Laroche, Stephen R. Macpherson, Josée Morneau, and Ayrton Zadra

improvements were made to both the forecast model and the data assimilation system. Some significant changes include the following: extending the model and assimilation domain in the vertical to fully include the stratosphere starting on 22 June 2009 ( Charron et al. 2012 ); improving model forecasts of tropical cyclones starting on 12 July 2011 ( Zadra et al. 2014a ); adding new observations [Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), SSMIS, and a reduced thinning of all radiances] starting on

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