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Robert Wood

upon wavelength, but also upon the cloud droplet size. They also emit efficiently in the longwave (thermal infrared 4 < λ < 50 μ m). Scattering is important at all wavelengths across the visible and infrared, but absorption dominates in the thermal infrared and is important for some bands in the near-infrared (0.8 < λ < 4 μ m). For visible wavelengths ( λ < 0.8 μ m), there is very little absorption by liquid water. 1) Longwave radiation Besides driving convective instability in

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Loïk Berre and Gérald Desroziers

estimates, for channel 7 of the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) at 0000 UTC 28 August 2006. Each plotted value at location i x is the product of the local increment value, namely, (𝗛 δ x )( i x ), with the corresponding local innovation value, namely, ( δ y )( i x ). This local product (𝗛 δ x )( i x ) × ( δ y )( i x ) is an estimate of the background error variance at location i x , according to Eq. (23) (including, in particular, an assumption that 𝗛 δ x and δ y are

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