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Bradley P. Goodwin, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Aaron B. Wilson, Stacy E. Porter, and M. Roxana Sierra-Hernandez

the annual layers with depth. The reconstructed annual net accumulation A n and oxygen isotopic ratio ( δ 18 O) provide proxy-based histories of precipitation and temperature, respectively. The Dansgaard and Johnsen (1969) model was used to reconstruct the original thicknesses of the annual layers (i.e., A n ) at depth in the BP core. Analysis of δ 18 O was performed with a Picarro Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer, Model L2120-i ( δ 18 O precision: 0.05‰). The BP A n and δ 18 O records from

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N. Fauchereau, B. Pohl, and A. Lorrey

operational purposes ( Renwick 2011 ). 5) The SAM The daily SAM index for 1979–present is provided by the Climate Prediction Center (CPC; ) and is calculated by projecting the daily 700-hPa geopotential height (Z700) anomalies poleward of 20°S onto the loading EOF obtained on monthly anomalies of Z700 over the same domain (see the CPC website for the details of the method). 6) Season of interest and period of analysis The

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Aaron B. Wilson, David H. Bromwich, and Keith M. Hines

suggestion that the ratio of CP to EP events may increase in a warming world ( Yeh et al. 2009 ), understanding the dynamics associated with each flavor may aid in improved modeling of such events to determine possible future climate implications. Section 2 explains the model characteristics, the El Niño and the SAM indices, and investigation methods. Section 3 verifies both the SAM and the El Niño influence on atmospheric circulation in the high latitudes, while section 4 provides an analysis of

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