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Kerry Emanuel

fluxes of sensible or latent heat and parameterized moist convection. It is not clear how unstable his initial condition was, but his linear stability analysis showed rapidly growing small-scale stationary modes that undoubtedly represented moist convection, with heating of the various layers occurring with a fixed vertical structure. He was able to integrate out to 10 days and his initial weak barotropic vortex developed into a hurricane-like cyclone with peak winds near 40 m s −1 and a radius of

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Ronald B. Smith

weather stations (e.g., Mt. Washington, New Hampshire, and Sonnblick, Austria). Now, as we begin the twenty-first century, many powerful observational tools are in use: instrumented aircraft, satellite passive visible and infrared imagery, active lidar and radar remote sensing, and even water isotope analysis. Accordingly, our knowledge has increased manyfold. In the last 60 years, many small and a few large coordinated field projects have provided a valuable observational database for mountain

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T. J. Wallington, J. H. Seinfeld, and J. R. Barker

known as the “Keeling Curve.” In addition to the IR absorption technique, Keeling used liquid nitrogen to condense CO 2 from air, which allowed quantification using a gas manometer and isotopic analysis of CO 2 using mass spectrometry ( Keeling 1958 ). This method has been used to analyze the 13 C, 14 C, and 18 O isotopic content and the evolution of atmospheric CO 2 . Modern isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques have remarkable precision enabling the 13 C/ 12 C isotope ratio in

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Carl Wunsch and Raffaele Ferrari

issue with the laying of the original undersea telegraph cables (e.g., Dibner 1964 ). Note the hint of a Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Maury also shows a topographic cross section labeled “Fig. A” in this plot. Modern physical oceanography is usually traced to the British Challenger Expedition of 1873–75 in a much-told tale (e.g., Deacon 1971 ) that produced the first global-scale sketches of the distributions of temperature and salinity [for a modern analysis of their temperature data, see Roemmich et

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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

. Analysis and modeling of circulation physics might have grown faster with a stronger observational database, but the early database grew slowly because few observations could be made without elaborate and expensive gear between observer and target. Scarce measurements and a big ocean challenged modeling and emphasized getting more numerous and better observations. At the same time, modeling was a way to evaluate observations, provided rational array designs, and motivated observations of physical

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

Jasechko et al. (2013) used an isotope analysis to estimate that transpiration accounts for 80%–90% of evapotranspiration globally, the community responded with a slew of alternate interpretations and analyses (e.g., Sutanto et al. 2014 ; Coenders-Gerrits et al. 2014 ). Future breakthroughs in global water cycle science will continue to be fueled by advances in remote sensing and modeling. Expansion of remote sensing data records is already enabling studies of global change that are less dependent

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

was very little then by way of observations of the individual components. Figure 14-1 provides a comparison of the values estimated by Dines (1917) compared to one modern analysis ( L’Ecuyer et al. 2015 ). What we term as RF of climate change today can be regarded as a result of this early thinking about the surface–atmosphere heat balance. Fig . 14-1. Comparison of one early estimate of Earth’s global-average energy budget ( Dines 1917 ) with the contemporary estimates of L’Ecuyer et al

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

from satellites); 2) theoretical advances, especially in understanding the behavior of waves and their interaction with the background flow; 3) increases in computational power and methods that allow ever more realistic numerical simulations; and 4) reanalysis and data assimilation in which global observations and models are combined to produce gridded output for analysis. By observing weather in mountainous regions, it has long been known that temperature decreases with altitude ( Fig. 27

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

. 1996 ). They fill an important gap for many research programs that rely on targeted observations in data sparse regions. Fig . 2-4. History of dropsondes developed at NCAR. A smart phone is included for a size reference. © 2018 UCAR. c. Upper-air observations and the stratosphere The analysis of stratospheric winds from radiosonde launches at Nairobi, Kenya; Kanton Island, Republic of Kiribati; and Christmas Island between 1955 and 1960 ( McCreary 1959 ; Reed et al. 1961 ) showed that the wind

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