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Stanley Gedzelman, James Lawrence, John Gamache, Michael Black, Edward Hindman, Robert Black, Jason Dunion, Hugh Willoughby, and Xiaoping Zhang

-Doppler radar analysis of the azimuthally averaged wind field of the innermost 30 km. Isotope ratios in Hurricane Olivia (1994) were higher during a time of intense radial and vertical circulation that followed a burst of rapid deepening on 24 September and lower during a period of weaker mean updrafts as the storm began filling on 25 September. Simulations suggest that isotope ratios at flight level increase for several hours following intensification of the vertical and radial circulation as snow and ice

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Stanley David Gedzelman and James R. Lawrence

andhence, useless for most meteorological processes. Toverify that the models simulate the physical processesinvolving isotopes well, it is necessary to test their performance on individual weather events using isotopicdatasets such as are described in this paper. The paper is organized as follows: the isotopic, datacollection and analysis is briefly described in section2. The general principles relating isotopic content withmeteorological structure are discussed in the contextof the isotope models

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K. D. Hage, J. Gray, and J. C. Linton

measurementerrors by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite theappeal of stable isotope analysis in studies of the movement and transformation of water in the atmosphereand on earth, widespread use of the technique has not'been realized in meteorology. It is true that interpretation of large-scale features of the hydrological cycle bythis method alone is hampered by the complexityof fractionation processes and by the lack of adequatesimultaneous measurements of temperature, humidity,and air trajectories

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Kinya Toride, Panduka Neluwala, Hyungjun Kim, and Kei Yoshimura

approach enables us to improve reanalysis products by assimilating information from historical documents worldwide for, in particular, the early nineteenth century, when limited observations are available. From the perspective of data assimilation, this study evaluates how atmospheric dynamics could be improved by assimilating TCC information, which follows from the work of Yoshimura et al. (2014) , who assimilated water vapor isotope information into the GSM. Yoshimura et al. (2014) created

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Frederick H. Carr, Phillip L. Spencer, Charles A. Doswell III, and Jeffrey D. Powell

JULY 1995 CARR ET AL. 2165A Comparison of Two Objective Analysis Techniques for Profiler Time-Height Data FREDERICK H. Cam~School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OklahomaPHmLm L. SPENCER AND CHARLES A. DOSWELL IIINOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma JEFFREY D. POWELL Vandenberg Air Force Base, Vandenberg, California

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M. A. Shapiro

calculations of the terms of the gradient thermal windequation illustrate the importance of the sign and magnitude of the air trajectory curvature and its verticalderivative in maintaining regions of strong vertical wind shear and small Richardson number in the presenceof weak horizontal thermal gradient. 1. Introduction The present knowledge of the horizontal structure of atmospheric frontal zone-jet stream systems has been inferred, for the most part, from synoptic analysis of upper-air sounding data

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Kei Yoshimura and Masao Kanamitsu

directly yields a global analysis with high frequency (typically every 6 h) as the most likely state of the atmosphere and also yields an uncertainty estimate for that analysis ( Compo et al. 2011 ). By using this technique, Whitaker et al. (2009) showed that the late-nineteenth-century observation network for surface pressure would provide comparable analysis skill for the 500-hPa height, as would a 3-day forecast with the current network. Ensemble seasonal forecasting or ensemble data assimilation

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Man Zhang, Milija Zupanski, Min-Jeong Kim, and John A. Knaff

for all NOAA-18 AMSU-A channels. The ensemble uncertainty analysis is found to be highly anisotropic and time dependent. The horizontal autocorrelation of a pseudo-AMSU-A channel 6 observation produces an isotopic, Gaussian-like shape as a function of distance. In turn, complex microphysical processes in the TC core area imply that hydrometeor mass variables will be cross correlated with temperature and produce different horizontal and vertical structure functions. The flow-dependent structures

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Jean-Philippe Baudouin, Michael Herzog, and Cameron A. Petrie

have found that the topography is responsible for the increase of precipitation along the foothills. They especially show the importance of wind and upslope moisture convergence, associated with convective instability, in the production of precipitation during both wet seasons. However, a systematic analysis of synoptic-scale processes causing the dependency between precipitation and topography at the basin scale has not been performed so far. Houze (2012) has reviewed the processes related to

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Alan Brammer and Chris D. Thorncroft

1. Introduction The structure and evolution of African easterly waves (AEWs) have been presented using many different approaches since the pioneering studies by Carlson (1969) , Frank (1969) , Burpee (1972 , 1974 ), and Reed et al. (1977) among many others. These early papers, though using limited data, produced useful portrayals of the dynamic and thermodynamic structure of AEWs through composite analysis over multiple events. Since then global models and long-term reanalysis products

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