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Zhining Tao, Scott A. Braun, Jainn J. Shi, Mian Chin, Dongchul Kim, Toshihisa Matsui, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

Carlson 1988 ; Braun 2010 ), similar to a front, with 3–4 K of temperature difference across distances of ~30–150 km ( Carlson and Prospero 1972 ). Thermal wind balance results in the midlevel African easterly jet (AEJ; Carlson and Prospero 1972 ; Karyampudi and Carlson 1988 ; Cook 1999 ; Thorncroft and Hoskins 1994 ; Chen et al. 2015 ). The AEJ results in enhanced vertical wind shear, increased vorticity south of the jet, and an ageostrophic transverse circulation with enhanced upward motion to

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Sergio F. Abarca, Michael T. Montgomery, Scott A. Braun, and Jason Dunion

system ( Stewart 2014 ). 3. Data and methodology The data used in this study consist of GPS dropsondes deployed from the unmanned Global Hawk as part of the HS3 campaign ( Hock et al. 2016 ) and the NOAA G-IV jet and WP-3Ds as part of the NOAA IFEX program, the National Hurricane Center (NHC)–Tropical Prediction Center (TPC) best track dataset, the Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS) 200–850-hPa vertical wind shear analyses ( DeMaria and Kaplan 1994 ; DeMaria and Kaplan 1999

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Alan Brammer, Chris D. Thorncroft, and Jason P. Dunion

with cyclonic vorticity maximized near the level of the African easterly jet (AEJ) around 700–600 hPa (e.g., Burpee 1972 , 1974 ) . These AEW troughs provide the preexisting low-level vortex for around 50% of tropical cyclogenesis events over the tropical Atlantic (e.g., Carlson 1969a , b ; Frank 1970 ; Landsea 1993 ). As the AEW troughs transit over the coastal region of West Africa, deep convection and associated potential vorticity generation can be a crucial stage in the AEW life cycle for

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Scott A. Braun, Paul A. Newman, and Gerald M. Heymsfield

intense convection in a relatively moist environment (>70%, orange and red filled circles). At 400 hPa ( Fig. 2b ), strong west-northwesterly storm-relative flow brought very dry air over the southern portion of the storm (blue filled circles), and the center of circulation was displaced approximately 200 km to the northeast (downshear) of the low-level center in a region of stratiform precipitation. A well-defined outflow jet at 200 hPa ( Fig. 2c ) was evident on the northern side of the storm with

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E. P. Nowottnick, P. R. Colarco, S. A. Braun, D. O. Barahona, A. da Silva, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, and J. R. Spackman

.1175/1520-0450(1972)011<0283:TLSMOS>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1972)011<0283:TLSMOS>2.0.CO;2 Chan , C. J. C. , and W. M. Gray , 1982 : Tropical cyclone movement and surrounding flow relationships . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 110 , 1354 – 1374 ,<1354:TCMASF>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<1354:TCMASF>2.0.CO;2 Chen , T.-C. , S.-Y. Wang , and A. J. Clark , 2008 : North Atlantic hurricanes contributed by African easterly waves north and south of the African easterly jet

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William A. Komaromi and James D. Doyle

downshear right ( Merrill 1988a ). A number of studies ( Sadler 1976 , 1978 ; Merrill and Velden 1996 ) also found an association between TCs with multiple outflow channels and intensification. Additionally, Merrill and Velden (1996) found an increase in the height of the level of strongest outflow as well as an increase in the vertical depth of the outflow layer during the intensification of Super Typhoon Flo (1990). Their results show the equatorward outflow jet maximum to occur at a higher level

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Hui Christophersen, Altug Aksoy, Jason Dunion, and Kathryn Sellwood

. Wea. Rev. , 144 , 3321 – 3331 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-15-0421.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-15-0421.1 Aberson , S. D. , and J. L. Franklin , 1999 : Impact on hurricane track and intensity forecasts of GPS dropwindsonde observations from the first-season flights of the NOAA Gulfstream-IV Jet Aircraft . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 80 , 421 – 427 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<0421:IOHTAI>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<0421:IOHTAI>2.0.CO;2 Aberson , S. D. , A. Aksoy , K. J. Sellwood , T

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Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

precipitation cells in tropical cyclone eyewalls are associated with tropical cyclone intensification . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 , L24112 , doi: 10.1029/2004GL021616 . Kepert , J. D. , 2001 : The dynamics of boundary layer jets within the tropical cyclone core. Part I: Linear theory . J. Atmos. Sci. , 58 , 2469 – 2484 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<2469:TDOBLJ>2.0.CO;2 . Kepert , J. D. , and Y. Wang , 2001 : The dynamics of boundary layer jets within the tropical cyclone core. Part II

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