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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

orographic enhancement when the low-level prefrontal jet was strong and unblocked. The environmental conditions shown in Fig. 5 during the heavy-rain regime support the conclusion of a strong correlation between low-level jet intensity and mountain precipitation made by Neiman et al. (2002) . The OLYMPEX observations show that the most pronounced characteristic of the heavy-rain regime is the location of the maximum precipitation enhancement at low to midelevations near the front of the topographic

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Robert A. Houze Jr., and Simone Tanelli

Bliven contributed to the collection and interpretation of surface observations. A Colorado State University team lead by Dr. Paul Ciesielski launched soundings and performed quality-control procedures. Comments from three anonymous reviewers considerably strengthened the manuscript. This research was supported by NASA Grants NNX16AD75G and 80NSSC17K0279 and NSF Grants AGS-1503155 and AGS-1657251. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of

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Annareli Morales, Hugh Morrison, and Derek J. Posselt

troposphere, as well as high surface potential temperatures (~285–289 K), strong wind speeds (low-level jet >20 m s −1 ), high freezing level, and nearly saturated conditions ( Ralph et al. 2005 ). When ARs interact with topography they can produce intense precipitation, triggering flooding and mudslides that result in devastating and costly impacts to local infrastructure and loss of life and property ( Ralph et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2008b ; Leung and Qian 2009 ; Ralph et al. 2011 ). In California

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Hannah C. Barnes, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Angela K. Rowe, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

neutral stability from the surface to 550 hPa ( Fig. 4b ). These conditions are consistent with the frontal system being of the “atmospheric river” type ( Newell et al. 1992 ; Zhu and Newell 1994 , 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 ; Warner et al. 2012 ). The KH waves occurred between 4 and 6 km, which is the upper boundary of this moist layer. The drier layers above 6 km were associated with considerably stronger winds from an upper-level jet. The analysis presented in Fig. 5b indicates that multiple

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Robert Conrick, Clifford F. Mass, and Qi Zhong

://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-11-0237.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-11-0237.1 Nakanishi , M. , R. Shibuya , J. Ito , and H. Niino , 2014 : Large-eddy simulation of a residual layer: Low-level jet, convective rolls, and Kelvin–Helmholtz instability . J. Atmos. Sci. , 71 , 4473 – 4491 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0402.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0402.1 Niu , G.-Y. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The community Noah land surface model with multiparameterization options (Noah‐MP): 1. Model description and evaluation

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