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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

be deflected by the shallow layer of TC outflow. Recently, using an idealized modeling framework, Dai et al. (2019) concluded that the primary TC rainband is a significant source of the outflow, thereby allowing the eyewall to be “protected” from the environmental shear flow (in their case, an upper-level westerly jet). In parallel, Ryglicki et al. (2019) used a detailed series of diagnostics to persuasively argue that the unexpected rapid intensification of Hurricane Matthew (2016) was due

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David R. Ryglicki, Daniel Hodyss, and Gregory Rainwater

.ucar.edu/people/bryan/cm1/cm1_equations.pdf . Chen , T.-C. , and A. C. Wiin-Nielsen , 1976 : On the kinetic energy of the divergent and nondivergent flow in the atmosphere . Tellus , 28 , 486 – 498 , https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v28i6.11317 . 10.3402/tellusa.v28i6.11317 Cho , J. Y.-K. , and L. M. Polvani , 1996 : The emergence of jets and vortices in freely evolving, shallow-water turbulence on a sphere . Phys. Fluids , 8 , 1531 – 1552 , https://doi.org/10.1063/1.868929 . 10

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Patrick Duran and John Molinari

radial wind [first term on the right-hand side of Eq. (6) ] also acted within the outflow jet. For example, horizontal advection provided forcing for destabilization at the 16-km level almost everywhere inside of the 140-km radius. Outside of this radius near 16 km, however, existed a region of forcing for stabilization. This switch in signs can be explained by a reversal of the radial gradient of mean near the 140-km radius ( Fig. 4b ). Inside of that radius, and , which corresponds to forcing

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

as upper-level troughs and westerly jets can interact strongly with the TC. Whether the environmental flow is beneficial or detrimental to TC development depends mainly on the relative strength of the environmental features and the TC, and the distance between them ( Hanley et al. 2001 ; Peirano et al. 2016 ). In those papers, the TC development means the axisymmetric response of the TC to the environmental flow. The eddy flux momentum convergence (EFC) is a good indicator of TCEFI, with the

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William A. Komaromi and James D. Doyle

circulation and/or the right-entrance region of a jet streak act to strengthen the secondary circulation associated with the vortex itself ( Rodgers et al. 1991 ; Shi et al. 1997 ; Hanley et al. 2001 ; Merrill 1988a , b ; Fischer et al. 2017 ). Sadler (1976) suggested that favorable TC interactions with upper-level troughs act to enhance upper-level divergence and establish a connection between the TC outflow and large-scale westerlies, ventilating and thereby strengthening the cyclone. Similarly

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Benjamin C. Trabing, Michael M. Bell, and Bonnie R. Brown

found between the TCs besides an upward shift in the outflow jet. A hypothesized difference between the rate of intensification per degree of tropopause temperature change for these two studies is due to the different experimental setups in two versus three dimensions and the temperature profiles used. Wang et al. (2014) showed that the inclusion of dissipative heating could also be a factor in changing sensitivity of the maximum tangential gradient winds to outflow temperature. Both of these

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