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Serguei Sokolov and Stephen R. Rintoul

1. Introduction For geophysical flows of sufficient spatial scale, the meridional gradient of planetary vorticity (the β effect) provides a restoring force that helps to organize the flow into persistent, narrow zonal jets ( Rhines 1975 ). Well-known examples include the jets on Jupiter and the outer planets and the jet streams in the earth’s atmosphere. Oceanic flows also fall in a parameter range conducive to the formation of zonal jets, although the presence of land boundaries has been

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Lee-Lueng Fu

. (1999) discussed the relation between the resonance and the semiannual Wyrtki jet. The existence of the semiannual basin mode was also noted by Gent et al. (1983) and Clarke and Liu (1993) . The variability at higher intraseasonal frequencies was studied by Han et al. (2001) and Han (2005) through comparisons of model simulations with observations. Enhanced variance in both sea level and zonal current near a period of 90 days was noted in the studies. The resonance mechanism of Cane and

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Victor Zlotnicki, John Wahr, Ichiro Fukumori, and Yuhe T. Song

products are generated at three processing centers: the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR), and the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ). JPL is responsible for “level 1” processing (a variety of essential operations starting with the downloaded raw data), and all three centers perform “level 2” processing—the conversion of level-1 GPS, range rate, accelerometer, and other data to the spherical harmonic Stokes coefficients. All centers use common

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A. J. Meijers, N. L. Bindoff, and J. L. Roberts

°–30°S globally ( Fig. 5d ), there is a southward boundary current–driven eddy transport, peaking at 0.2 PW at 25°S. Between 30° and 35°S, the EAC and Agulhas eddy transports are largely balanced by opposing offshore transports ( Fig. 3 ), resulting in almost zero net transport. This is probably due to strong anticyclonic eddies being shed from the eastern edge of the central current jet. From 35° to 50°S, eddies play a vital role in global ocean heat transport. In this region eddies make up over 25

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

of the Environment and Climate EU Enact project (EVK2-CT2001-00117) and distributed by Aviso, with support from CNES. Computational support from the National Partnership for Computational Infrastructure (NPACI) and NCAR is acknowledged. Support was provided in part through ONR (NOPP) ECCO Grants N00014-99-1-1049, NAG5-11765, NAG5-12870, and NNG04GF30G, and through a contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (1205624). This is a contribution of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and

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Dimitris Menemenlis, Ichiro Fukumori, and Tong Lee

the Atlantic side of Gibraltar Strait, η atl ; for the Alboran Sea, η alb ; for the Mediterranean, η med ; and for the sea level difference, h = η alb − η atl ; see Table 1 for a summary of the notation used. Sea level data are taken from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center Altimeter Ocean Pathfinder TOPEX/Poseidon sea surface height anomaly, version 9.2, obtained from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed

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Rui M. Ponte and Sergey V. Vinogradov

baroclinic effects, and from longer periods of integration, to better assess the behavior at the low-frequency end of the spectrum. Such efforts are currently being pursued. Acknowledgments We are very grateful to P. Heimbach (MIT) for providing the original model setup and for all the help with the model and to two anonymous reviewers for many useful comments on the manuscript. Support for this work was provided by the NASA Jason-1 Project under Contract 1206432 with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

spectral analyses. This study is a contribution of the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) Consortium, which is funded by the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A personal recollection in celebration of Prof. Carl Wunsch’s 65th birthday by Ichiro Fukumori: As a tribute to Carl’s accomplishments

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