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Michael S. Pritchard, Andrew B. G. Bush, and Shawn J. Marshall

, the Laurentide ice sheet has a significant effect on the low-level circulation over North America ( Fig. 3 ). The massive topography of the Laurentide ice sheet acts as an obstacle to low-level atmospheric flow, effectively splitting the westerly midlatitude jet stream into two branches that circumnavigate the ice sheet perimeter to the north and to the south. The fast-flowing northern and southern branches of this midlatitude “split jet stream” recombine downstream of the ice sheet into a single

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Guido Vettoretti, Marc d’Orgeville, William R. Peltier, and Marek Stastna

Northern Hemisphere midlatitude jet streams have intensified substantially over the North Atlantic and northwestern Pacific. Much of the intensification and change in orientation of the winds is likely due to the effect of the expanded sea ice edge in high northern latitudes. At 45°N, the transient eddy latent and sensible heat fluxes have increased by approximately 30% (not shown) and indicate that the baroclinicity of the Northern Hemisphere has increased substantially during winter (e.g., see Bush

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