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Duncan Cook and Sally Garrett

covering much of the Indian Ocean ( Smith et al. 2011 ). Fig . 1. Location of pirate attacks off Somalia in 2010–11 ( n = 287). A regional-scale picture of wind speed during the summer monsoon may be gained by examining the surface expression of the Somali low-level jet ( Boos and Emanuel 2009 ), a band of persistent strong winds running northeastward off the east African coast during the summer monsoon ( Fig. 2 ). We focus here on daily variations in the strength of the Somali jet during the study

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Stefan von Gruenigen, Saskia Willemse, and Thomas Frei

prices have an important impact on the economic benefits of TAF. Their impact is approximately linear: rising (falling) fuel prices in the model lead to a rise (fall) in the economic benefits of the same magnitude. This makes the results presented above very sensitive to changes in fuel prices. Jet fuel prices have been very volatile in the last few years (see Fig. 3 ). Fig . 3. Index of prices (1990 = 100) for “Jet Fuel A1” between 1990 and 2010 (International Energy Agency; www.iea.org ). The

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Asher Siebert

schematic illustration of the surface wind fields in January and July is shown in Fig. 4 . Fig . 4. Diagram of surface wind and pressure patterns in West Africa in (left) January and (right) July from Nicholson (2013) . As the moist air from the Gulf of Guinea flows north/northeast to the ITCZ and rises, storm systems are then advected from east to west by prevailing winds and influenced by the African easterly jet (AEJ; at low levels ~3 km) and the tropical easterly jet (TEJ; at high levels ~15 km

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Duzgun Agdas, Forrest J. Masters, and Gregory D. Webster

attached to a handrail system located 8 ft (1 ft = 0.305m) downwind of the jet, which they were allowed to hold. Participants were exposed to 20-, 40-, and 60-mph wind speeds with a constant 8 in. h −1 rain (simulated by a horizontal sprinkler system) for 20-s intervals in predetermined randomized orders. During the interval (~15 s) between each wind exposure, participants communicated their estimates of (i) wind speed, (ii) rain intensity, and (ii) personal risk [on a scale of 0 (no perceived risk

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Thomas W. Corringham and Daniel R. Cayan

North America, El Niño episodes are associated with a deepened, southward-extended Pacific low pressure system, a persistent extended Pacific jet stream, and an amplified storm track that produces unusual wetness across the southern tier of the United States. In contrast, La Niña episodes typically feature anomalous high pressure over the North Pacific, a variable Pacific jet stream, and cool and wet weather in the Pacific Northwest and south of the Great Lakes. Unusually dry and warm weather across

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Kristin M. F. Timm, Edward W. Maibach, Maxwell Boykoff, Teresa A. Myers, and Melissa A. Broeckelman-Post

newscast, they want balance …If I do an update, say this is the wettest October on record. This could be due to slowing down of jet stream and blah, blah, blah. Whatever I do, they want the opposite side.” The same interviewee added that their management is supportive of climate change reporting but explained how “the only caveat that we operate under is that we need to get an opposing view.” Another broadcast weather professional described how their producer assigned them to conduct a live interview

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Mary McRae, Ross A. Lee, Scott Steinschneider, and Frank Galgano

rising air temperatures due to climate change will have on aviation is scarce. The impact of extreme temperatures on commercial fixed-wing aircraft performance has been analyzed with emphasis on maximum takeoff weight restrictions and resulting airport restrictions ( Coffel and Horton 2015 ; Coffel et al. 2017 ). While this research does introduce some of the performance impacts of rising temperature to aviation, several gaps remain. This research considered commercial jet airliners, while

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Mikhail Varentsov, Natalia Shartova, Mikhail Grischenko, and Pavel Konstantinov

, simulations, and dynamics of jet stream variability and annular modes . J. Climate , 23 , 6186 – 6199 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3235.1 . 10.1175/2010JCLI3235.1 Kobysheva , N. V. , Ed., 2001 : The Climate of Russia (in Russian). Gidrometeoizdat, 656 pp . Kocsis , T. , I. Kovács-székely , and A. Anda , 2017 : Comparison of parametric and non-parametric time-series analysis methods on a long-term meteorological data set . Cent. Eur. Geol. , 60 , 316 – 332 , https://doi.org/10

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Vladimir Janković and David M. Schultz

to a slowing down of the jet stream caused by the likely human-driven melting of the Arctic ( Rutgers Today 2014 ). During this period, scientists began developing tools and approaches for studying the probability that certain weather events were enhanced or became more frequent because of anthropogenic climate change. Comparisons between model climates in a preanthropogenic world and a postanthropogenic world became more commonplace. Among indications that attribution has secured a comfortable

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Randall S. Cerveny, Pierre Bessemoulin, Christopher C. Burt, Mary Ann Cooper, Zhang Cunjie, Ashraf Dewan, Jonathan Finch, Ronald L. Holle, Laurence Kalkstein, Andries Kruger, Tsz-cheung Lee, Rodney Martínez, M. Mohapatra, D. R. Pattanaik, Thomas C. Peterson, Scott Sheridan, Blair Trewin, Andrew Tait, and M. M. Abdel Wahab

storms). Tornado Project of Environmental Films. [Available online at http://www.tornadoproject.com/index.html .] Grazulis , T. P. , 2001 : The Tornado, Nature’s Ultimate Windstorm . University of Oklahoma Press, 352 pp. Greely , A. W. , 1888 : American Weather: A Popular Exposition of the Phenomena of the Weather (Including Chapters on Hot and Cold Waves, Blizzards, Hail-Storms and Tornadoes, etc., etc.) . Dodd, Mead & Company, 286 pp. Harman , J. R. , 1971 : Tropospheric waves, jet streams

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