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Malcolm J. Roberts, Pier Luigi Vidale, Matthew S. Mizielinski, Marie-Estelle Demory, Reinhard Schiemann, Jane Strachan, Kevin Hodges, Ray Bell, and Joanne Camp

miss the seasonal cycle in vorticity ( Fig. 6 , bottom). This is consistent with the changed structure of the African easterly jet (AEJ), which the southern flank of the AEJ has a much weaker meridional wind gradient in the models than the reanalyses ( Fig. 7 ) and an AEJ core located farther south. This would in turn restrict the formation of AEWs to the south of the jet, and they have been shown by Chen et al. (2008) to be particularly associated with TC formation in the eastern Atlantic. As an

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Chao Wang and Liguang Wu

shear related to the midlatitude westerly jet and the tropical easterly shear associated with the South Asian high. While the vertical shear associated with the TUTT limits the eastern boundary of TC formation, it is suggested that the vertical shear is also an important factor for controlling TC activity area (e.g., Wu et al. 2015 ; Wang and Wu 2016 ). Fig . 2. (a) The 200-hPa winds (streamlines) and vertical shear of zonal wind (shading; m s −1 ) averaged over 1979–2005 in ERA-I. (b) As in (a

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Michael Horn, Kevin Walsh, Ming Zhao, Suzana J. Camargo, Enrico Scoccimarro, Hiroyuki Murakami, Hui Wang, Andrew Ballinger, Arun Kumar, Daniel A. Shaevitz, Jeffrey A. Jonas, and Kazuyoshi Oouchi

Syst. , 6 , 141 – 184 , doi: 10.1002/2013MS000265 . Scoccimarro , E. , and Coauthors , 2011 : Effects of tropical cyclones on ocean heat transport in a high-resolution coupled general circulation model . J. Climate , 24 , 4368 – 4384 , doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI4104.1 . Shapiro , M. A. , and D. A. Keyser , 1990 : Fronts, jet streams, and the tropopause. Extratropical Cyclones: The Erik Palmén Memorial Volume, C. Newton and E. Holopainen, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 167–191 . Stowasser

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