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Abby Stevens, Rebecca Willett, Antonios Mamalakis, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Alejandro Tejedor, James T. Randerson, Padhraic Smyth, and Stephen Wright

and strength of the wintertime jet stream, which can then bring more (or fewer) winter storms to the SWUS, leading to wet (or dry) conditions over the SWUS and dry (or wet) conditions over the northwestern United States. However, recent research shows that the ENSO effect on the atmospheric pressure and (consequently) on precipitation over the eastern Pacific and North America has been decreasing in strength during the last 3–4 decades, while many studies have highlighted to a greater or lesser

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Clément Guilloteau, Antonios Mamalakis, Lawrence Vulis, Phong V. V. Le, Tryphon T. Georgiou, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

propagation, which are most likely the signature of Rossby wave propagation on top of the mean circulation in the atmosphere (i.e., the jet stream). At the 15-day period ( Fig. 15 ), the first eigenvector also shows a wave with eastward propagation southward of 50°S, consistently corresponding to Rossby waves. This pattern in the Southern Hemisphere is consistently found among the first two eigenvectors of the sPCA for all periods between 4 and 60 days (not shown) with a spatial wavelength increasing with

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Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Clement Guilloteau, Phu Nguyen, Amir Aghakouchak, Kuo-Lin Hsu, Antonio Busalacchi, F. Joseph Turk, Christa Peters-Lidard, Taikan Oki, Qingyun Duan, Witold Krajewski, Remko Uijlenhoet, Ana Barros, Pierre Kirstetter, William Logan, Terri Hogue, Hoshin Gupta, and Vincenzo Levizzani

Grant EAR-1928724 and International Research Grant EAR-242458 LIFE: Linked Institutions for Future Earth and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Conference Grant 80NSSC19K0726 are gratefully acknowledged. The work by FJT was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The University of California, Irvine (UCI), provided administrative support and resources for

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Allison E. Goodwell

material). On a national average, information flows as measured by lagged MI tend to originate from the west ( Figs. 4a–d ), which reflects the dominant wind patterns across the United States due to the jet stream. In some cases, we see that information from opposite directions appears to cancel out in the θ MIvect calculation. This occurs for example in the summer, where θ MImax is predominantly from the west, but the dominant θ MIvect is from the southwest ( Fig. 4c ). This occurs because MI is

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Clément Guilloteau and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

-1839441. The authors thank Prof. Christian Kummerow, Dr. Dave Randel, and Dr. Wesley Berg from the Precipitation Group at the Colorado State University as well as Dr. Joseph Turk from NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the insightful discussions and shared information which contributed to the present article. APPENDIX A Acronyms AMSR-2 Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 CMORPH Climate Prediction Center morphing technique DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DPR Dual

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Nobuyuki Utsumi, F. Joseph Turk, Ziad S. Haddad, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and Hyungjun Kim

sensors in the GPM constellation is currently underway. Acknowledgments The work contained in this manuscript was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Supports from NASA (80NM0018F0617, 80NSSC19K0681, and NNX16AL23G) are recognized. This work is also supported by JAXA’s Second Research Announcement on the Earth Observations, JSPS KAKENHI (19K15097 and 18KK0117) and KUAS Research Expenditure for FY 2020 Interdisciplinary Research

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