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  • Understanding Diurnal Variability of Precipitation through Observations and Models (UDVPOM) x
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J. Li, S. Sorooshian, W. Higgins, X. Gao, B. Imam, and K. Hsu

is the GOC low-level jet (LLJ), which typically develops along the Gulf of California and typically reaches peak intensity in the early morning. The jet has been investigated using observations from SWAMP (e.g., Douglas and Li 1996 ); Douglas et al. 1998 ) and using numerical simulations (e.g., Stensrud et al. 1995 , 1997 ; Anderson et al. 2001 ; Fawcett et al. 2002 ; Gochis et al. 2002 ; Li et al. 2004 ; Saleeby and Cotton 2004 ; Mo et al. 2005 ; Gao et al. 2007 ). In general, current

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R. E. Carbone and J. D. Tuttle

are multiple factors underlying the diurnal cycle in this region, among these are the mountain–plains solenoidal circulation (MPS; Wolyn and McKee 1994 ) and the Great Plains low-level jet (GPLLJ; Bonner 1968 ). According to RUC summertime climatology, the MPS is characterized by an afternoon ascent of the order of 4–8 cm s −1 near the Continental Divide and descent of the order of 1–2 cm s −1 over a broad area centered at ∼90°–100°W ( Fig. 9a ; 60 kPa). Anomaly winds (i.e., the climatological

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Alex C. Ruane and John O. Roads

been an intriguing diurnal phenomenon. The diurnal water cycle behaviors produced by the PERSIANN experiment in this region capture much of the observed variability discussed more extensively in RR07a . Carbone et al. (2002) tracked propagating convective disturbances from their late-afternoon origins over the lee side of the Rocky Mountains to their dissipation in the early morning over the Great Lakes region, replenished by moisture supplied by a nocturnal low-level jet streaming north from

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