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Andrew M. Carleton, David J. Travis, Kara Master, and Sajith Vezhapparambu

1. Introduction Much debate centers on the role of jet-aircraft-generated contrails and their resulting contrail cirrus in surface climate changes at regional scales, especially for the United States and Europe (e.g., Changnon 1981 ; Angell 1990 ; Sassen 1997 ; Nakanishi et al. 2001 ; Del Guasta and Vallar 2003 ; Ponater et al. 2005 ). Recent climate trends potentially attributed to contrail formation by commercial aviation include the following: increases in high cloudiness, reduced

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Douglas O. ReVelle and E. Douglas Nilsson

1. Introduction and overview a. AOE-96 and other Arctic Ocean expeditions Low-level jets (LLJs) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have been observed over numerous continental locations and over the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans in the atmospheric planetary boundary layer. Modeling of the Arctic Ocean atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is in some ways similar to modeling of the nocturnal boundary layer over continental surfaces in middle and high latitudes. The key to understanding the Arctic

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P. Baas, F. C. Bosveld, H. Klein Baltink, and A. A. M. Holtslag

1. Introduction Low-level jets (LLJs) are frequently observed phenomena in the nocturnal atmosphere in many parts of the world. They are characterized by a maximum in the wind speed profile, which is typically situated 100–500 m above the earth’s surface. In the literature, many studies can be found on the development and the characteristics of LLJs (e.g., Bonner 1968 ; Garratt 1985 ; Kraus et al. 1985 ; Whiteman et al. 1997 ; Andreas et al. 2000 ; Banta et al. 2002 ; Song et al. 2005

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Thara V. Prabha, Monique Y. Leclerc, Anandakumar Karipot, and David Y. Hollinger

; Coulter and Doran 2002 ; Doran 2004 ), such as wave–turbulence interactions ( Einaudi and Finnigan 1993 ), shear-flow instability ( Newsom and Banta 2002 ), density currents ( Sun et al. 2002 ), downward-propagating solitary and internal gravity waves ( Sun et al. 2004 ), and low-level jets (LLJs; Banta et al. 2002 ). In the presence of an LLJ, SBLs are often coupled with upside-down boundary layers ( Mahrt 1999 ; Mahrt and Vickers 2002 ). The turbulence is generated at elevated layers by high wind

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Dana L. Doubler, Julie A. Winkler, Xindi Bian, Claudia K. Walters, and Shiyuan Zhong

1. Introduction Our understanding of the spatial and temporal variations of low-level wind maxima (commonly referred to as low-level jets or LLJs) over North America and surrounding coastal areas remains incomplete in spite of their significant impact on local and regional weather and climate. This is in part due to the limited availability of upper-level wind observations. The majority of previous LLJ climatologies were developed using routine rawinsonde observations (e.g., Bonner 1968

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Julie K. Lundquist and Jeffrey D. Mirocha

1. Introduction The nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) is a well-documented phenomenon that occurs frequently in many regions around the world. The LLJ has been studied in great detail in the southern Great Plains of the United States ( Bonner 1968 ; Whiteman et al. 1997 ; Higgins et al. 1997 ; Banta et al. 2002 ; Song et al. 2005 ). These studies indicate that the LLJ plays an important role in the transport of moisture, momentum, and air pollutants. In the canonical case first described by

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Ming-Yang He, Hong-Bo Liu, Bin Wang, and Da-Lin Zhang

1. Introduction The low-level jet (LLJ), typically referred to as a fast-moving airflow in the lowest kilometers, has been found at many locations around the world, such as North America, South America, southeast China, South Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Australia, and Antarctica ( Stensrud 1996 ; Muñoz and Garreaud 2005 ; Rife et al. 2010 ; Du et al. 2014 ). LLJs tend to develop over the eastern slope of large mountains or coastal regions having significant land–sea temperature

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Claudia K. Walters, Julie A. Winkler, Sara Husseini, Ryan Keeling, Jovanka Nikolic, and Shiyuan Zhong

1. Introduction Low-level jets (LLJs) have a substantial influence on local and regional climate. Climatological studies of LLJs have frequently used vertical wind profiles at individual rawinsonde stations to identify wind maxima (e.g., Bonner 1968 ; Mitchell et al. 1995 ; Arritt et al. 1997 ; Whiteman et al. 1997 ; Walters et al. 2008 ). The coarse temporal (2 times per day) and spatial (often greater than 300 km) resolutions of routine rawinsonde observations (raobs), as well as changes

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Thomas R. Parish and Richard D. Clark

1. Introduction The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) is among the most scrutinized mesoscale features of the lower atmosphere (e.g., Bonner 1968 ; Bonner and Paegle 1970 ; Mitchell et al. 1995 ; Whiteman et al. 1997 ). Studies have shown that relatively weak southerly winds in the daytime summer boundary layer often become significantly enhanced during the nighttime and early morning hours. A well-defined jet profile becomes established several hundred meters above the surface a few hours

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David A. Rahn and Thomas R. Parish

1. Introduction A northerly low-level jet frequently forms off the California coast during late spring and summer. This coastal jet (CJ) can be relatively strong, with a maximum wind speed often over 25 m s −1 (e.g., Beardsley et al. 1987 ; Zemba and Friehe 1987 ; Rogers et al. 1998 ; Pomeroy and Parish 2001 ), and it is found near the top of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL; Bridger et al. 1993 ). The location and extent of the CJ can be variable depending on the synoptic

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