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Edward W. Ferguson, Frederick P. Ostby, and Preston W. Leftwich Jr.

three noteworthy tornado outbreaks that occurred during theyear. Also, a composite chart, depicting the relativepositions of some key meteorological fields, is shownfor each outbreak. Outbreaks of 5 April and 31 May were associatedwith strongly baroclinic environments characterized bywell-defined jet streams and intensifying synoptic-scalesystems. Although the mesoscale structure and evolution of these two cases were different, both were representative of dynamically-forced springtime severelocal

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Edward W. Ferguson, Frederick P. Ostby, and Preston W. Leftwich Jr.

regions of southern Texas. At850 hPa a southerly jet flowed from the MississippiDelta northeastward to southern Tennessee. Maximumwind speed in this jet was observed to be 33 m s-~ atNashville, Tennessee. A cold trough at 500 hPa extended from Arkansas southeastward across Mississippito southern Alabama. This feature, together with warm,moist low-level air, produced unstable conditions.Values of Lifted Index (Prosser and Foster 1966) were-8 at Jackson, Mississippi and Centerville, Alabama

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Edward N. Rappaport

satellite pictures and reconnaissance aircraft data suggest that Claudette retained 30–40-kt winds from 13 to 16 July. During that period, Claudette initially moved northward, but then was accelerated toward the east by the flow ahead of an approaching frontal system. On 14 July, this environment was sampled by Global Positioning System (GPS) dropsondes deployed from the NOAA G-IV jet making its inaugural flight in support of tropical cyclone operations ( Fig. 4 ). This high-altitude aircraft is

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Neil L. Frank and Gilbert Clark

Atlantic) of which 58maintained their identity while traversing the Caribbea'n. The eight disturbances that formed over theCaribbean added to the number from the Antillesresulted in 66 seedlings entering Central America. One unusual aspect of the 1976 season was th~ earlyappearance of a well-defined African wave that movedby I)akar on 15 May. The first African system of theseason does not~enerally occur until late May or earlyJune when the easterly subtropical jet becomes established across tropical

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Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, and John L. Guiney

well-established 700-mb easterly jet that peaked at 50 kt just before the wave axis crossed Dakar, followed by a well-marked wind shift from the surface to the middle troposphere. The overall circulation left Africa just north of Dakar where the ocean was relatively cool. However, a strong high pressure ridge steered the system on a west-southwest track over increasingly warmer waters and convection began to develop. Initially, there were several centers of rotation within a much larger circulation

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James L. Franklin, Lixion A. Avila, Jack L. Beven, Miles B. Lawrence, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

of NOAA's Gulfstream IV jet aircraft ( Aberson and Franklin 1999 ). Several satellite-based remote sensors are playing an increasingly important part in the analysis of tropical weather systems. Foremost of these is multichannel passive microwave imagery, which over the past decade has provided radarlike depictions of systems' convective structure ( Hawkins et al. 2001 ), and is of great help in assessing system location and organization. Available for a full season for the first time in 2000

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Richard J. Pasch and Lixion A. Avila

Hurricane Bertha. One, in Florida, was from an evacuating military jet crashing into a house and three others drowned in rip currents and high surf. One death from an auto accident occurred in North Carolina and another drowned in rip currents there. A surfer died in New Jersey. In Puerto Rico, two died in an automobile accident and another died while surfing. On the French part of St. Martin, one person was electrocuted and one fell off a boat and drowned. The fatalities caused by the jet crash and the

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James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven II, Miles B. Lawrence, Stacy R. Stewart, and Eric S. Blake

, ship and buoy reports, and weather radars. In key forecast situations, the kinematic and thermodynamic structure of the storm environment is obtained from dropsondes released during operational “synoptic surveillance” flights of NOAA’s Gulfstream IV jet aircraft ( Aberson and Franklin 1999 ). Several satellite-based remote sensors play an important role in the analysis of tropical weather systems. Foremost of these is multichannel passive microwave imagery [e.g., from the Tropical Rainfall

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D. M. Rodgers, M. J. Magnano, and J. H. Arns

of the southern branch of the polar jet. Aninteresting aspect of this event was the presence of apronounced dry slot, as seen on midtroposphericwater vapor imagery (Fig. 11). This middle andupper-level dry intrusion was a persistent featureduring a three-day period which saw four MCCs(Cases 8-11), and it may have played some role inthe extreme severity of the Texas/Louisiana storms.896 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW

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R. A. Maddox, D. M. Rodgers, and K. W. Howard

floodingHail, wind, heavy rainWind, hail, flooding, heavy rainWind, hailNone reportedof the 23 systems that occurred during 1981. TheMCC in Fig. 2a is the eastern convective region centered over Missouri; the strong jet-stream which intensified to the north and east of this MCC had significant impacts on cross-country commercial aviation flights (for details refer to Maddox and Fritsch,1982). Fig. 2c shows double MCC systems over thesouth-central United States. The eastern complex.over Arkansas is in a

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