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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Daniel Hodyss, Joshua H. Cossuth, Yi Jin, Kevin C. Viner, and Jerome M. Schmidt

), the upper levels of the TC were able to be analyzed more carefully. Black and Anthes (1971) were able to describe, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the flow around five TCs out to a radius of 1000 km from the storm center. They demonstrated, via Fourier analyses, that the outflow layer of an observed TC is very asymmetric. Qualitatively, they also showed that outflow is favored in jets emanating from the core of the storm. Merrill (1988a) provided a significant step forward in the

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William A. Komaromi and James D. Doyle

downshear right ( Merrill 1988a ). A number of studies ( Sadler 1976 , 1978 ; Merrill and Velden 1996 ) also found an association between TCs with multiple outflow channels and intensification. Additionally, Merrill and Velden (1996) found an increase in the height of the level of strongest outflow as well as an increase in the vertical depth of the outflow layer during the intensification of Super Typhoon Flo (1990). Their results show the equatorward outflow jet maximum to occur at a higher level

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Shixuan Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Christopher Velden

data assimilation methods that enhance the impacts from various observations (i.e., AMVs). Acknowledgments This study is supported by NOAA/NWS Awards NA14NWS4680025 (Pu and Zhang) and NA10NES4400013 (Velden), Office of Naval Research Awards N000141310582 (Pu) and N00014-14-1-0116 (Velden), and NASA Award NNX13AQ38G (Pu and Zhang). The NOAA Jet supercomputer, supported by NOAA/ESRL and the Center for High-Performance Computing (CHPC) at the University of Utah, is greatly appreciated. Dave Stettner

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Xu Lu and Xuguang Wang

shown in Fig. 6a ) is worth additional investigation in future studies. Acknowledgments The research documented in this paper is supported by NOAA Grants NA14NWS4680021 and NA16NWS4680028 and the ONR Grants N00014-14-1-0125 and N000141712111. The experiments are performed on the NOAA supercomputer jet. Some results and descriptions were included in the abstract of the authors’ AMS conference presentation, the abstract of the first author’s dissertation seminar, and progress reports to the funding

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David R. Ryglicki, Joshua H. Cossuth, Daniel Hodyss, and James D. Doyle

addition to the TCAs, other specific features that occur prior to RI include migration of the cloud shield upshear, a pronounced asymmetry in far-field WV imagery, upshear WV arcs, and downshear-left outflow jets, features that will be explored more thoroughly in future manuscripts. In “classic” TCs, most notably, these arcs do not exist, and this upshear–downshear asymmetry is not as pronounced. This study makes use of IR and WV satellite imagery, synoptic reanalysis data, and a TC statistical

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Robert G. Nystrom and Fuqing Zhang

. Computing was conducted at the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) and NOAA Jet Cluster. All modeling and analysis datasets are saved at TACC and can be made freely available upon request. We also wish to acknowledge the NOAA Hurricane Research Division scientists and Aircraft Operation Center flight crew, as well as the scientists and crew of the TCI field campaign, for their data collection. All conventional observations were obtained from the NCAR RDA ( https://rda.ucar.edu/datasets/ds461.0 and

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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

TCI dropsonde data and Christopher Velden who provided the CIMSS AMV observations. REFERENCES Aberson , S. D. , and J. L. Franklin , 1999 : Impact on hurricane track and intensity forecasts of GPS dropwindsonde observations from the first-season flights of the NOAA Gulfstream-IV jet aircraft . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 80 , 421 – 427 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<0421:IOHTAI>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<0421:IOHTAI>2.0.CO;2 Aksoy , A. , S. D. Aberson , T

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