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Kazutoshi Sato, Atsuyoshi Manda, Qoosaku Moteki, Kensuke K. Komatsu, Koto Ogata, Hatsumi Nishikawa, Miki Oshika, Yuriko Otomi, Shiori Kunoki, Hisao Kanehara, Takashi Aoshima, Kenichi Shimizu, Jun Uchida, Masako Shimoda, Mitsuharu Yagi, Shoshiro Minobe, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

the upper troposphere shows that at 1800 UTC 22 May, the upper jet was directed eastward around 40°N ( Fig. 3a ). A shortwave trough, indicated by a high potential vorticity (PV) anomaly, was near 37°N, 119°E, at the southern periphery of the jet. By 1200 UTC 23 May, this trough had moved eastward to 37°N, 127°E ( Fig. 3b ). Marking the BFZ was an east–west band with strong gradient of θ e in the lower troposphere (850-hPa level), which was accompanied by a relatively strong PV anomaly ( Figs. 3

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Yuta Ando, Masayo Ogi, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

Asia as a result of changes in the mid- and high-latitude atmospheric circulation systems, including the Siberian high, upper-level trough, and westerly jet stream ( Jeong and Ho 2005 ; Park et al. 2008 , 2011 ). Another important mode of variability associated with SAT over East Asia is the western Pacific (WP) pattern identified by Wallace and Gutzler (1981) . The negative phase of the WP affects the East Asian monsoon and leads to abnormally cool temperatures over East Asia and eastern

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

distribution of the near-surface wind west and north of the cyclone’s center corresponds to the CCB, which indicates that the wind speed along the CCB in the NSH run was less intense than that in the CNTL run. In addition, the CCB was much weaker in the NLH and NSLH runs. The area of strong wind southeast of the cyclone’s center, which may be related to the sting jet (e.g., Browning 2004 ; Slater et al. 2015 ), was identified in the CNTL and NSH runs but is hardly seen in the NLH and NSLH runs. The

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

. , 129 , 2205 – 2225 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<2205:RTCCB>2.0.CO;2 . Shapiro , M. A. , and D. Keyser , 1990 : Fronts, jet streams, and the tropopause. Extratropical Cyclones: The Erik Palmén Memorial Volume , C. W. Newton and E. O. Holopainen, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 167–191 . Shapiro , M. A. , and Coauthors , 1999 : A planetary-scale to mesoscale perspective of the life cycles of extratropical cyclones: The bridge between theory and observations. The Life Cycles of

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