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Paraskevi Giannakaki and Olivia Martius

Europe results in significant errors in the forecasting of heavy precipitation in southern Switzerland. The focus of this study is on the model representation of one particular aspect of synoptic-scale Rossby waves, namely their waveguides. In the extratropics and subtropics, narrow and zonally extended areas of enhanced potential vorticity (PV) gradients, which are coaligned with the jet streams, act as waveguides for synoptic-scale Rossby waves (e.g., Schwierz et al. 2004 ; Martius et al. 2010

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Lars Wiegand, Arwen Twitchett, Cornelia Schwierz, and Peter Knippertz

). Berggren et al. (1949) (and reproduced by Rossby 1959 ) were among the first to show the propagation of a Rossby wave train over the North Atlantic, its amplification, and the nonlinear wave breaking. The fastest Rossby wave propagation is connected to the jet stream, which acts as a waveguide ( Schwierz et al. 2004 ) and coincides with the strongest isentropic gradients of potential vorticity (PV) that characterize the extratropical tropopause ( Hoskins et al. 1985 ). RWB can result in elongated

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