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John A. Augustine and Kenneth W. Howard

of information in the boundary layer,the kinematic cross section clearly reveals the ways inwhich the line of storms was processing environmentalair. Prior to passage, from the beginning of the timeseries to 1930 UTC, a deep layer of lower troposphereair (2-5 km above MSL) was converging into the stormsystem from the east. Behind the storm complex, adeep layer of lower tropospheric air was retreating fromthe squall line. At middle levels (approximately 6 kmMSL), a narrow layer of strong

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James L. Franklin and Daniel P. Brown

-air observations supplement the satellite and reconnaissance data. In key forecast situations, the kinematic and thermodynamic structure of the storm environment is obtained from dropsondes released during operational “synoptic surveillance” flights of NOAA’s Gulfstream IV jet aircraft ( Aberson and Franklin 1999 ). Several satellite-based technologies play an important role in the analysis of tropical weather systems. Foremost of these is multichannel passive microwave imagery [e.g., from the Tropical

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James L. Franklin, Lixion A. Avila, Jack L. Beven, Miles B. Lawrence, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

estimated from flight-level winds using empirical relationships derived from a 3-yr sample of GPS dropwindsonde data ( Franklin et al. 2000 ). When available, satellite and reconnaissance data are supplemented by conventional land-based surface and upper-air observations, ship and buoy reports, and weather radars. In key forecast situations, the vertical kinematic and thermodynamic structure of the storm environment is obtained from dropsondes released during operational “synoptic surveillance” flights

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James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven II, Miles B. Lawrence, Stacy R. Stewart, and Eric S. Blake

, ship and buoy reports, and weather radars. In key forecast situations, the kinematic and thermodynamic structure of the storm environment is obtained from dropsondes released during operational “synoptic surveillance” flights of NOAA’s Gulfstream IV jet aircraft ( Aberson and Franklin 1999 ). Several satellite-based remote sensors play an important role in the analysis of tropical weather systems. Foremost of these is multichannel passive microwave imagery [e.g., from the Tropical Rainfall

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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, Eric S. Blake, Daniel P. Brown, James L. Franklin, Richard D. Knabb, Richard J. Pasch, Jamie R. Rhome, and Stacy R. Stewart

radars, including the NWS network of Doppler radars. In key forecast situations, the kinematic and thermodynamic structure of the storm environment is obtained from dropwindsondes released during operational “synoptic surveillance” flights of NOAA’s Gulfstream IV jet aircraft ( Aberson and Franklin 1999 ). Several remote sensors on low earth orbit satellites play an important role in the analysis of tropical weather systems. Foremost among these are multichannel passive microwave instruments [e

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