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Semyon A. Grodsky, James A. Carton, Sumant Nigam, and Yuko M. Okumura

between ocean and atmosphere. Thus, a meridional displacement of the ITCZ and the trade wind systems is linked through wind-driven evaporation effects to a shift in the interhemispheric gradient of SST. Such meridional shifts in both are known to occur every few years [the “meridional” or “dipole” mode, e.g., Xie and Carton (2004) ]. Likewise, changes in the strength of the zonal winds and the zonal SST gradient along the equator occur from year to year in a way that is reminiscent of the kinematics

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Samantha Stevenson, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Markus Jochum, Richard Neale, Clara Deser, and Gerald Meehl

over the global oceans . J. Climate , 15 , 2205 – 2231 . Battisti , D. S. , and A. C. Hirst , 1989 : Interannual variability in a tropical atmosphere ocean model: Influence of the basic state, ocean geometry, and nonlinearity . J. Atmos. Sci. , 46 , 1687 – 1712 . Blanke , B. , and S. Raynaud , 1997 : Kinematics of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent: An Eulerian and Lagrangian approach from GCM results . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 27 , 1038 – 1053 . Boccaletti , G. , 2005

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William H. Lipscomb, Jeremy G. Fyke, Miren Vizcaíno, William J. Sacks, Jon Wolfe, Mariana Vertenstein, Anthony Craig, Erik Kluzek, and David M. Lawrence

natural and anthropogenic forcings by 2100? Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L07703, doi:10.1029/2010GL042947. Larour , E. , H. Seroussi , M. Morlighem , and E. Rignot , 2012 : Continental scale, high order, high spatial resolution, ice sheet modeling using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) . J. Geophys. Res. , 117 , F01022 , doi:10.1029/2011JF002140 . Levermann , A. , T. Albrecht , R. Winkelmann , M. A. Martin , M. Haseloff , and I. Joughin , 2012 : Kinematic first

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Christine A. Shields, David A. Bailey, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Markus Jochum, Jeffrey T. Kiehl, Samuel Levis, and Sungsu Park

, but does not seem to affect the amplitude of ENSO. Fig . 17. Power spectrum for Niño-3 SST anomalies for HadSST (black), T31x3_1850 (blue), T31x3_20C (red), FV2x1_1850 (green), FV1x1_1850 (purple). The area under a line, when integrated across all periods, yields the total variance. Purely kinematic arguments suggest that the ENSO amplitude has to depend on the zonal as well as vertical temperature gradient along the equator (e.g.; Schopf and Burgman 2006 ), but nonlinear feedbacks between SST

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