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David M. Schultz, Bogdan Antonescu, and Alessandro Chiariello

. , 12 ( 2 ), 1 – 62 . Browning , K. A. , 1997 : The dry intrusion perspective of extra-tropical cyclone development . Meteor. Appl. , 4 , 317 – 324 , doi: 10.1017/S1350482797000613 . Chiariello , A. , 2006 : A critical assessment of occluded fronts. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, 98 pp. [Available online at https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/21004/acritica.pdf?sequence=2 .] Doswell , C. A. , III , 1984 : A kinematic analysis of

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H. F. Dacre, P. A. Clark, O. Martinez-Alvarado, M. A. Stringer, and D. A. Lavers

that moisture filaments are drawn into developing cyclonic circulations and that atmospheric rivers deliver large masses of warm, moist air directly from the tropics to the extratropics are addressed. Finally, use of the term “atmospheric river” as a suitable descriptor of these moist airflows is discussed. In this paper, we will perform a kinematic analysis of the properties of a climatology of 200 extratropical cyclones and quantify the relative contribution of different processes leading to the

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Geraint Vaughan, Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, and Christopher Dearden

are derived from the WRF simulation. What was the role of isentropic upgliding ( Hoskins et al. 2003 ) ahead of the trough? To examine this, isentropic back-trajectories starting in the midtroposphere between 4 and 6 km were calculated from points around the rainband starting at 0800 UTC 16 September, using HYSPLIT ( Stein et al. 2015 ) based on 30-min output from the WRF simulation. Two-dimensional isentropic trajectories rather than three-dimensional kinematic trajectories were used to isolate

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Laura H. Baker, Suzanne L. Gray, John Methven, and Robert S. Plant

the three streams S1, S2, and S3 start and end at similar values ( Fig. 9d ). They exhibit slight deceleration down to | V | < 10 m s −1 during the first 3 h after 0100 UTC and then steady acceleration to reach wind speeds | V | ≃ 45 m s −1 at 1600 UTC. The kinematic differences between the two types of trajectories can be fully appreciated by considering system-relative horizontal wind speeds ( Fig. 9e ). The system velocity was calculated at every time step as the domain-average velocity at

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C. Dearden, G. Vaughan, T. Tsai, and J.-P. Chen

. , 141 , 2037 – 2057 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00276.1 . Sulia , K. J. , J. Y. Harrington , and H. Morrison , 2013 : A method for adaptive habit prediction in bulk microphysical models. Part III: Applications and studies within a two-dimensional kinematic model . J. Atmos. Sci. , 70 , 3302 – 3320 , doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-12-0316.1 . Tsai , T. , 2014 : A multi-moment bulkwater ice microphysics scheme with consideration of the adaptive growth habit and apparent density for pristine ice in the

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Matthew R. Clark and Douglas J. Parker

.5. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/23SLS/webprogram/Paper115102.html .] Locatelli , J. D. , J. E. Martin , and P. V. Hobbs , 1995 : Development and propagation of precipitation cores on cold fronts . Atmos. Res. , 38 , 177 – 206 , doi: 10.1016/0169-8095(94)00093-S . Marquis , J. N. , Y. P. Richardson , and J. M. Wurman , 2007 : Kinematic observations of misocyclones along boundaries during IHOP . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 135 , 1749 – 1768 , doi: 10.1175/MWR3367.1 . Marsham

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Sam Hardy, David M. Schultz, and Geraint Vaughan

. C. Davies , and W. A. Norton , 1996 : Fragmentation of stratospheric intrusions . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 1435 – 1456 , doi: 10.1029/95JD02674 . 10.1029/95JD02674 Battalio , M. , and J. Dyer , 2017 : The minimum length scale for evaluating QG omega using high-resolution model data . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 145 , 1659 – 1678 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-16-0241.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-16-0241.1 Bluestein , H. B. , 1992 : Principles of Kinematics and Dynamics. Vol. 1, Synoptic

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