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  • The Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES) x
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Dhruv Balwada, Joseph H. LaCasce, Kevin G. Speer, and Raffaele Ferrari

characteristics of the stirring are encoded in how the separation between particle pairs evolves, and can be quantified by considering the evolution of pair separation PDF and its moments: relative dispersion (second moment), which is a measure of the size of the tracer cloud, and kurtosis (normalized fourth moment). The relative dispersion, the mean square pair separation, evolution can be derived using purely kinematic arguments ( Babiano et al. 1990 ). These are based on the relative diffusivity, the

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Ross Tulloch, Raffaele Ferrari, Oliver Jahn, Andreas Klocker, Joseph LaCasce, James R. Ledwell, John Marshall, Marie-Jose Messias, Kevin Speer, and Andrew Watson

.03 m s −1 . Low velocity of the tracer patch was at least partially confirmed by the observation that all of the stations at which tracer was found during the initial survey, 4 to 14 days after release, were within 10 km of the center of the initial patch. In kinematic simulations based on the altimetry at the time of the experiment (not shown), with velocity at the tracer depth approximated as 0.38 times the surface geostrophic velocity from the altimeter, the center of mass of the tracer moved

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Ivana Cerovečki and Matthew R. Mazloff

. Sonnerup , J. L. Bullister , W. M. Smethie Jr. , and M. J. Warner , 2004 : Global oceanic chlorofluorocarbon inventory . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 , L01303 , doi: 10.1029/2003GL018816 . Wunsch , C. , and P. Heimbach , 2013 : Dynamically and kinematically consistent global ocean circulation and ice state estimates. Ocean Circulation and Climate: A 21st Century Perspective , G. Siedler et al., Eds., Elsevier, 553–579 , doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-391851-2.00021-0 .

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Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, Kurt L. Polzin, Raffaele Ferrari, Jan D. Zika, and Alexander Forryan

, which mainly includes waters below the base of the seasonal pycnocline) and densest [ γ n > 27.9 kg m −3 , largely composed of Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW)] layers. The single most prominent feature of the distribution of eddy stirring across the ACC is its suppression by the strong mean flow within the upper ~1 km of ACC frontal jets, a phenomenon that may be understood using simple kinematic arguments ( FN10 ; NG11 ). Thermohaline variance is observed to be injected into the approximate

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Michael Bates, Ross Tulloch, John Marshall, and Raffaele Ferrari

– 16 , doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.07.004 . Bower , A. S. , 1991 : A simple kinematic mechanism for mixing fluid parcels across a meandering jet . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 21 , 173 – 180 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1991)021<0173:ASKMFM>2.0.CO;2 . Bower , A. S. , and M. S. Lozier , 1994 : A closer look at particle exchange in the Gulf Stream . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 24 , 1399 – 1418 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1994)024<1399:ACLAPE>2.0.CO;2 . Bretherton , F. P. , 1966 : Critical layer

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