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P. Ramamurthy, E. R. Pardyjak, and J. C. Klewicki

Kármán constant (taken to be 0.4), g is the gravitational acceleration constant, T S is the mean absolute sonic temperature, and is an estimate of the 15-min-averaged local kinematic heat flux. In this paper, the coordinate system for the winds is defined according to the geometry of the street canyon and coincides with standard meteorological coordinates. That is, winds from the south are in the positive y direction ( υ velocity; denoted “cross canyon”) and winds from the west are in the

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Yansen Wang, Cheryl L. Klipp, Dennis M. Garvey, David A. Ligon, Chatt C. Williamson, Sam S. Chang, Rob K. Newsom, and Ronald Calhoun

–rural wind velocity differences. Atmos. Environ. , 11 , 597 – 604 . Bowen , B. M. , 1996 : Example of reduced turbulence during thunderstorm outflow. J. Appl. Meteor. , 35 , 1028 – 1032 . Brown , M. J. , 2001 : Urban parameterization for mesoscale meteorological models. Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion, Z. Boybeyi, Ed., Advances in Air Pollution Series, Vol. 9, WIT Press, 192–255 . Browning , K. A. , and R. Wexler , 1968 : The determination of kinematic properties of a wind field

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Steve R. Diehl, Donald A. Burrows, Eric A. Hendricks, and Robert Keith

measured values is for the simulated z / h = 0.16 curve, which does not extend as far out from the building toward negative y as the measured curve does. The MESO dispersion simulations were made with 30 000 tracers, resulting in a normalized rms error of about 5% in the region of the peak concentration. The diffusivity K used in this calculation was set to K = ( k / ω )/Sc t , where k / ω is the kinematic eddy viscosity in the k – ω turbulence model, as simulated by RUSTIC for each cell. A

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Donald A. Burrows, Eric A. Hendricks, Steve R. Diehl, and Robert Keith

kinetic energy (TKE), ω is the specific dissipation, and K H is the eddy diffusion coefficient for heat. The values of k and ω are obtained from a k– ω turbulence model ( Wilcox 1998 ). This model has been modified to include the generation of TKE by thermally driven processes: where ν is the kinematic viscosity of air and the Reynolds stress is given by The closure constants and functions as given by Wilcox are These constants were adjusted as follows from the values given by Wilcox, to

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M. A. Nelson, E. R. Pardyjak, J. C. Klewicki, S. U. Pol, and M. J. Brown

used here rather than the terms urban climatology or urban micrometeorology because UFM implies a focus on flow kinematics and dynamics over the range of length and time scales that are the focus of this work. The challenges described above motivate the need for field campaigns performed in actual cities to, for example, discern the degree that the data obtained in the laboratory may be applied to real urban flows. Over the past few decades several field campaigns have been conducted in cities

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